Introductory Bambara Course

All the credit for this book ″Kalanden ka Gafe” goes to the Peace Corps. It has been modified and reformatted here to appeal to an internet audience:

  1. COMMUNICATIVES TASKS

    • Objectives

    • Dialogs

    • Texts

    • Vocabulary

    • Grammar

    • Exercises

    • Self Evaluation

  2. APPENDIX

    • Grammatical Notes

    • Proverbs

    • Translation

    • Stories

Table 1. BAMBARA List of Communicative Tasks
COMMUNICATIVE TASKOBJECTIVESVOCABULARYGRAMMAR

  • Greeting

  • Introducing oneself

  • Saying goodbye

  • Greet alone in appropriate ways according to the different moments of the day, in the community.

  • Tell with precision your first name, his family name and where he/she comes from.

  • Use, at least, three types of questions to know the name of some objects in a real situation.

  • Expressions related to the situation

  • Jobs

  • Titles

  • Parenthood expressions

  • Expressions for introducing

  • Expressions for leave taking

  • To be (bε) (ye… ye) at the present tense

  • Personal pronouns

  • Interrogative words: min? jon? jumεn?

  • Transitive, reflexive and intransitive verbs at the present tense

  • The postposition la

  • Asking the world for something

  • Ask, at least, three types of questions to find out the name and the use of five different objects in a real situation.

  • Identify, at least, five different objects in your sector.

  • Tell the use of, at least, five different objects in your community.

  • Use three expressions of possession.

  • Usual expressions for identifying

  • Classic objects

  • Numbers

  • The possessive adjective ka

  • The possessive pronoun ta

  • The emphatic personal pronoun

  • The emphatic de

  • Talking about the family

  • Cite six family relationships in your host family.

  • Tell exactly the profession of three family members and where they live.

  • Tell the social status and the age of, at least, three family members in the target language.

  • Parenthood terms

  • Expressions such as to be alive, dead, married, old, single, etc.

  • To have (fε)

  • How much/many joli?

  • Shopping

  • Use efficiently the local money in a Malian market.

  • Buy two or three items in a market or a shop.

  • Currency

  • Items of the market, in the shops

  • Bargaining expressions

  • Transitive, reflexive and intransitive verbs at the pass tense

  • Asking/Giving directions

  • Locate, at least, two places.

  • Use, at least, three expressions to ask and give directions.

  • Name of place

  • Terms of locating and giving direction

  • Cardinal points

  • Ordinal numbers

  • The Imperative

  • Describe a person, an object and a place

  • Name, at least, ten (10) parts of human body.

  • Describe a person by pointing out, at least, five physical and five moral traits.

  • Describe, in five correct sentences, your training site.

  • Describe an object by giving two or three characteristics.

  • Cite, at least, five common sicknesses in Mali.

  • Body parts

  • Adjectives describing morally and physically

  • Colors

  • Expressions for describing

  • The ka auxiliary

  • Qualifying adjectives + man suffix

  • The passive voice with the len/nen suffix

  • Describe one’s mental and physical state

  • Ask, at least, one accurate question to get information about someone’s physical state.

  • Formulate two or three blessings to a sick person.

  • Diseases

  • Expressions for feelings, emotions and desires

  • Expressions for blessings

  • The Future tense

  • The Imperfect tense

  • Talking about daily activities

  • Cite, at least, four daily activities of a man and four of a woman according to the different periods of the day.

  • Cite five activities of your own.

  • Cite, at least, five daily or seasonal activities according to the gender, and the age.

  • Tell your daily timetable to your host family.

  • The name of the periods of the day

  • Verbs linked to daily activities

  • Expressions linked to activities

  • The Hypothetical future with mana

  • The Conditional tense

  • Talking about traveling

  • Cite the three most used transportation means in Mali.

  • Ask three appropriate questions to get informed about the means, the fare and the schedule of transportation regarding your trip, in a real situation.

  • Use three appropriate expressions to wish welcome or safe trip to a traveler.

  • Means of transportation

  • Travel expressions

  • Blessings expressions

  • Verb expressing habit (ka deli ka) at the present tense, the past tense and the Imperfect tense

  • Talking about meals

  • Cite, at least, five Malian meals.

  • Explain, at least, one recipe to someone.

  • Enumerate four behaviors when eating in Mali and compare them to the American ones.

  • Name of dishes, utensils, ingredients, beverages

  • Meals expressions

  • The use of kε

  • Talking about feasts and leisure

  • Cite three religious and three traditional feasts in Mali.

  • Name, at least, three leisure time activities in your community and describe one of them.

  • Name of religious and traditional feasts

  • name of musical instruments

  • The passive voice

  • Accept or decline an invitation

  • Use, at least, three expressions to invite someone in a real situation.

  • Use appropriately three expressions to accept or decline an invitation.

  • Expressions to invite someone

  • Expressions to accept an invitation

  • Expression to decline an invitation

  • Verbs expressing desire and obligation at the present tense, the past tense and the Imperfect tense

  • Asking for help

  • Use three appropriate expressions to ask for or decline a proposal of help in a given situation.

  • Expressions and words for soliciting, proposing, accepting or politely declining help

  • Expressions for giving instructions to an employee

  • Review of the tenses

  • Talking about weather

  • Cite three characteristics of the main seasons in Mali.

  • Cite, at least, two activities related to the seasons, according to gender.

  • Name of seasons, months

  • Characteristics of each season

  • Activities during each season

  • Review of the tenses

  • Talking about one’s skills

  • Explain in detail your work to another person.

  • Explain in detail one specific activity related to your technical sector.

  • crafts

  • Professions

  • Terms of describing skills

  • The action nouns

  • The agentive nouns

* Grammatical Notes

  • Use proper prefixes and suffixes to form new words and expressions.

  • Words and expressions linked to grammatical notes

  • The suffix lan

  • The suffix ntan

  • The suffix ta

  • The suffix bali

  • The suffix ka

  • The prefix la

* Translations

  • Use the items alone.

  • Dialogs

  • Texts

  • Use of proverbs in daily communication

* Stories

  • Introductory beginners course into culture by stories

  • Expressions found through stories and legends

  • Use of stories and proverbs in practice

FOLI | MƆGƆ ƝƐ JIRA MƆGƆ WƐRƐ LA | FOLI BILA

GREETING | INTRODUCING ONESELF | SAYING GOODBYE

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives :

    1. Greet alone in appropriate ways according to the different moments of the day, in the community.

    2. Tell with precision your first name, his family name and where he/she comes from.

    3. Use at least three expressions to say goodbye in a real situation.

    4. Use, at least, three types of questions to know the name of some objects in a real situation.

Cultural Notes: * Greeting is very important in Bambara. The one(s) who arrive(s) initiate(s) the greeting. * Never greet people in the morning before washing the face. * The family name is very significant because it allows you to identify the joking cousins, the ethnic group and the origin of the identified person. * Always announce where you are going and when you will probably be back. * The host should always accompany the visitor to the gate.

THE IMPORTANCE OF GREETINGS

In Africa, greetings and salutations are extremely important to people. For the American, who is used to saying nothing more than “ hi ” and then moving on, this may be hard to get used to. The Bambara people and their language presente no exception to this generalization. The exchanges presented to you in this and the following lessons represent only a beginning upon which you can build up your inventory of salutations and eventually perfect the art of greeting in the Bambara world. When two good friends meet, the greetings may last as long as five minutes, and even longer if they haven’t seen each other for a long time. Greetings are a way of showing the respect that people have for each other. Greetings always involve at least one handshake and usually involve a series of handshakings of varying durations. You will often see the men putting their hands to their chests after each handshake - part of showing respect. The greetings should always be begun with a handshake, and leavetaking will also require one handshake.

When you pass people that you know in the street, it is best to stop and go through at least a short greeting exchange with them. Whatever your dealings may be with various Malian people, it is important to start off your conversation or your business with the greetings. You should never be in so much of a hurry that you don’t have time to greet someone - it doesn’t pay.

In a typical greeting dialogue, one person usually starts out and remains the initiator for several exchanges while the other person responds to the various greetings and questions. When that series is completed, then the roles switch and the initiator becomes the answerer for several exchanges.

TIMES OF DAY

For greetings and for referring to the times of the day, the Bambara language makes four different divisions of the day:

  1. the morning ( sɔgɔma ),

  2. the heat of the day - around noon ( tile ),

  3. the afternoon ( wula ) and

  4. the evening and night ( su ).

There is a greeting for each of these divisions of the day. The greeting i ni sɔgɔma would be literally translated as meaning “ you and the morning “, but really corresponds with the English “ Good morning “and the French “bonjour “.

GREETING PATTERNS

The following diagrams are designed to represent the various possibilities for use of the basic greeting patterns presented in this lesson. Only one item is to be selected at a time from boxes containing several listed items. Use these to check out the different possibilities and to make up new ones. The order of the diagrams represents an acceptable ordering of the greetings.

GreetingsResponses

i

ni

sɔgɔma

nba (male)

aw

tile

nse (female)

(name)

wula

su

i

ka

kεnε (wa) ?

tɔɔrɔ (si)

n na

somɔgɔw

t’

u la

i cε /muso

t’

a la

i

di?

n

hεrε la

hεrε

dɔrɔn

The words nba and nse are used extensively in response to various greetings. Trying to translate them is useless, since we don’t have their equivalents in English. Essentially they are signs of acknowledgement indicating acceptance of the greeting and recognition of the other person. Nba is the male response and nse is the female response.

DIALOG

Amadu

I ni sɔgɔma, n balimamuso!

Sali

Nse i ni sɔgɔma, n balimakε! Hεrε sira?

Amadu

Hεrε dɔrɔn! I ka kεnε?

Sali

Tɔɔrɔ tε! I tɔgɔ?

Amadu

N tɔgɔ Amadu Jara. E dun?

Sali

N tɔgɔ Sali Tarawele. I Jara!

Amadu

Nba! Tarawele muso, i bε bɔ min?

Sali

N bε bɔ Segu. Jarakε, i fana bε bɔ Segu?

Amadu

Eh, ayi! N bε bɔ yan.

Sali

O ka ɲi! Ala ka tile hεrε caya!

Amadu

Amiina! K’an b’u fo!

Sali

U n’a mεn!

  • Greeting facilitates the integration and guarantees respect, personal and material security in the community.

  • The joking cousin plays the role of an icebreaker and a social stabilizer between Malian communities.

VOCABULARY

Table 2. Vocubulary
i ka kεnε?

how are you?

baasi tε

I’m fine

tana tε?

are you fine?

x ka kεnε

x is healthy (fine)

tɔɔrɔ t’u la

they’re fine

x bε di?

how are x?

a bε ten

it’s so so

hεrε dɔrɔn

peace only (fine)

hεrε tilenna?

how was your day?

x dun?

and x? (what about x)? (a form of greeting)

tɔgɔ

name

bangebaaw

parents

ba

mother

dɔgɔ

younger sibling

muso

wife/woman

tericε

male friend

kalanden

student

kuntigi

chief

jamana

country

dugu

city

Ameriki

America ( U S A )

ka bɔ

to come from

x filε

here’s x

jumεn?

which?, what?

jon don?

who is it?

nin ye x ye

this is x

lakɔli

school

kalanso

classroom

dumunikεyɔrɔ

restaurant, eating place.

ka taa

to go

ka sunɔgɔ

to sleep

ka x mεn

to hear x

ka x kun bεn

to meet x

k’i lafiɲε

to rest

k’i ko

to wash oneself.

k’i yaala

to take a walk

tɔɔrɔ tε

I’m fine

tɔɔrɔ si tε

no problem at all

tana tε

I’m fine

tɔɔrɔ t’a la

he/she’s fine

i bε di?

how are you?

a bε di?

how is it?

hεrε bε?

is there peace? (How are you?)

hεrε sira?

how was your night?

jamu duman?

what’s your last name?

i + family name

acknowledging your family name

jamu

last name

fa

father

kɔrɔ

older sibling

husband/man

teri

friend

terimuso

female friend

karamɔgɔ

teacher

ɲεmɔgɔ

leader

jamanatigi

president

dugutigi

chief of village

Farafinna

Africa x sigilen don + place x is settled in…​ ( live )

min?

where?

jon?

who?

x don

it’s x

butigi

shop

dɔkɔtɔrɔso

hospital

ka na

to come

ka x fo

to greet x

ka wuli

to get up

ka x caya

to increase x

k’i da

to lay down

k’i miiri

to think

k’i sigi

to sit down

k’i ɲεnajε

to have fun.

COMMON EXPRESSIONS

To take leave of someone at different moments of the day: usually there is a leave taking expression followed by the answer.

sunɔgɔ bε n na

I am sleepy.

n sεgεnnen don

I am tired.

n taara

I am leaving

kelen!

already

k’an b’u fo

Say we greet them; tell them hello

u n’a mεn

they will hear it

k’an b’a fo

Say we greet him/her

a n’a mεn

She/he will hear it.

DUGAW Blessings

k’an sɔɔni

See you soon

ka su hεrε (caya)

good night.

k’an bεn

see you.

k’an kelen kelen wuli

May we get up one by one (Good night)

ka segin n’i ɲuman ye

May you come back safe.

Ala ka tile hεrε caya

May god increase the peace of the day (Have a nice day)

ka dugu ɲuman jε

good night.

k’an si (hεrε la)

May we spend the night in peace

ka taa ni ka segin nɔgɔya

Have a nice trip

amiina

Amen.

SOME TIME EXPRESSIONS

sɔgɔma/sɔgɔmada fε

In the morning

wula fε

In the afternoon (15h)

sɔɔni

Soon

sinin

Tomorrow

tile fε/tilegan fε

In the afternoon (12h)

sufε

In the evening

kɔfε

Later

SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY

hakεto

please

basi tε

no problem

n m’a faamu

I did not understand it

segin a kan

repeat it

hakε t’i la

you are excused

i ko di?

what did you say?

n m’a mεn

I did not hear it

a fɔ tuguni

say it again

GRAMMAR THE PRESENT TENSE:

Translations for “ to be “

As will become apparent to you, there are a number of forms in Bambara that translate the English verb “ to be. “ In this lesson we have been briefly exposed to two of these.

  1. bε in the sentence hεrε bε: “ There is happiness.“
    tε in the sentence tɔɔrɔ tε: “ There is no trouble.

    “ This form is used to express existence, location, and state. The negative of this form is indicated by the word tε, as in the second example above. In example 2-, this form is used for expressing existence. In the following two examples from this lesson, the same form is essentially used for location.

  2. ka in the question: i ka kεnε (wa)? “ How are you? “

    This form is used for what we will refer to as adjectives. Literally translated, the question corresponds to “ are you healthy? “ or “ are you well? “ in English, but it is used like the English “ How are you? “ or the French. Remember that ka is the sign of this form and that kεnε meaning “ healthy “ is an adjective. Adjectives will be more closely examined in Communicative Task: Describing a person, an object, a place.

  3. To describe somebody or something in order to translate the English to be, the ye…​ ye is used.

e.g:

John ye kalanden ye.

John is a student.

New-York ye ameriki dugu ye.

N.Y. is an American city.

Mali ye jamana ye.

Mali is a country.

a- The descriptive adjective is placed between the two ye. b- The negative form is constructed as follows:

tε …​ ye

e.g:

John tε karamɔgɔ ye.

John isn’t a teacher.

Los Angeles tε jamana ye.

L.A. isn’t a country.

The transitive verbs:

e.g:

I bε mun kalan?

What do you study?

N bε Bamanankan kalan.

I study Bambara.

bε/tε is the auxiliary element for the present in Bambara.
  • In Bambara, the direct object occurs before the verb.

e.g.:

  1. ka __ kalan

  2. ka __ dun

  3. ka __ sεbεn

  4. ka __ tobi

  5. ka __ fɔ

  6. ka __ wele

  7. ka __ fo

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subj + bε + Direct Object + V

Subj + tε + Direct Object + V

N bε Bamanankan kalan.

N tε Bamanankan mεn kɔsεbε.

I study Bambara

I don’t speak Bambara very well.

Interrogative form:

Subj + bε + Direct Object + V (wa)?

Subj + tε + Direct Object + V (wa)?

I bε Tubabukan mεn wa?

Aw tε bamanankan fɔ?

Do you (hear)/undertand/speak French?

You don’t speak Bambara?

The reflexive verbs:

Reflexive verbs or pronominal verbs always have an object pronoun that refers to the same person as the subject. The object pronoun occurs before the verb.

e.g:

Table 3. Example
N bε n ko.I wash myself
But in Bambara, the third person object noun can be i in reflexive constructions.

e.g: .Example

A bε a sigi = A b’i sigi.

He sits down.

Karamɔgɔ t’i sigi kalanso kɔnɔ.

The teacher doesn’t sit down in the classroom.

e.g.:

k’i ko

k’i da

k’i sigi

k’i lafiɲε

k’i yaala

k’i ɲεnajε

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Suj + bε + Pron + V

Suj + tε + Pron + V

N bε n ko sɔgɔma ni sufε.

N tε n da joona sufε.

Interrogative form:---

Suj + bε + Pron + V (wa)?

Suj + tε + Pron + V (wa)?

I b’i ko sɔgɔma ni wula fε (wa)?

Aw t’aw da joona sufε?

The reflexive pronoun always immediately precedes the reflexive verb in the infinitive:

N bε taa n yaala.

I am going to take a walk.

Aw bε taa aw ɲεnajε.

You are going to amuse yourself.

The intransitive verbs:

e.g:

I bε bɔ min?

Where are you from?

N bε bɔ Ameriki.

I come from Amerika.

I bε taa min?

Where are you going?

N bε taa sugu la.

I am going to the market.

In Bambara, the indirect object (object + postposition) occurs after the verb.

e.g. :

ka bɔ

ka taa

ka segin

ka kuma

ka sunɔgɔ

ka wuli

ka yaala

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Suj + bε + V + indirect Obj + postp

Suj + tε + V + indirect Obj +postp

Sali bε taa sugu la.

Sali tε segin joona so.

Interrogative form:

----

Suj + bε + V + indirect Obj + postp (wa)?

Suj + tε + V + indirect Obj +postp (wa)?

Amadu bε kuma kalandenw fε wa?

The verb kε

The verb kε has many meanings: to do, cause, happen, occur. Here, it is used as a transitive verb, meaning “do”.

e.g:

ka kalan kε (ka kalankε)

to do studying (to study)

ka baara kε (ka baarakε)

to do work (to work)

* In the above two examples kalan is a noun meaning “studying” and baara is a noun meaning “work”. Both are direct objects of the verb kε.
Affirmative form:Negative form:

Suj + bε + Vkε + Obj + postp

Suj + tε + Vkε + Obj +postp

N bε baarakε kɔridelapε la

U tε sεnεkε don go don.

Interrogative form:

Suj + bε + Vkε + Obj + postp (wa)?

Suj + tε + Vkε + Obj +postp (wa)?

A bε barokε a somɔgɔw fε su o su wa?

I tε sεbεnnikε kalanso kɔnɔ?

The verb ko

e.g:

I ko mun?What do you say?

N ko, n bε taa so.

I say, I am going home.

The verb ko that appaeared once in these sentences means “to say”. It is a defective verb (one wich does not have all tenses) very frequently used in Bambara. It does not take any auxiliary elements in Present tense.

The postposition “la”

La is a preposition used for a place. It comes always after the place in the sentence. Therefore, it is called a postposition.

S + bε + Verb + Place + la

e.g:

N bε taa lakɔli la. A bε kalankε University la.

La becomes na after nasal sounds.

e.g: An bï taa ɲεgεn na.

La is not used after so (specific place)

e.g: N bε taa so.

La is not used with geographical names (except for Mali).

e.g: An bε bɔ Ameriki. U tε taa Bamako. A bε bɔ New-York. But: U bε na Mali la.

EXERCISES

1- Write the possible answers:

  1. I ni sɔgɔma

  2. I ka kεnε?

  3. I bε di?

  4. Hεrε bε?

  5. Somɔgɔw bε di?

  6. I fa n’i ba bε di?

  7. Hεrε sira?

2- Create a conversation between Amadu and Bakari.

Bakari:

Amadu:

Bakari:

3- Match the words in A with those in B.

  • A

    1. n bε taa

    2. lakɔli

    3. k’an b’u fo

    4. amiina

    5. u n’a mεn

    6. ka tile hεrε caya

    7. k’an sɔɔni

    8. k’an bεn

  • B

    1. amen

    2. see you

    3. they will hear it

    4. I leave

    5. have a nice day

    6. school

    7. see you soon

    8. tell them hello

  1. Greet at least two to three persons you meet:

  2. Obseve the acts and gestures;

  3. Get informed on their identity and where they are from;

  4. Use at least three expressions to take a leave in this real situation;

  5. Note down the new expressions.

FƐNW TƆGƆ ƝININKALI

ASKING THE WORD FOR SOMETHING

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Ask, at least, three types of questions to find out the name and the use of five different objects in a real situation.

    2. identify, at least, five different objects in your sector.

    3. tell the use of, at least, five different objects in your community.

    4. use three expressions of possession.

Always greet people before asking them.

VOCABULARY

Table 4. Vocabulary
kalanso

classroom

kulisi

shorts

saki (bɔrɔ)

bag

lakεrε

chalk

so

house

palan (shiyo)

bucket

biki

pen

furalan

broom

dilan (dalan)

bed gafe (liburu/kitabu)book

dara

bed sheet

sange (sanke)

mosquito net

kεsu

trunk

te (dute)

tea

butiki

shop

alimεti

matches

samara

shoes

fifalan

fan

ka furannikε

to sweep

ka x fifa

to fan x

ka x don

to wear x

ka x ta

to take x ka x don y kɔnɔ/la to put x(solid) in y

ka x sεbεn

to write x

ka x faga

to put off (light)

ka x (da) yεlε

to open x

ka x ɲininka

to ask x

ka x ɲεfɔ

to explain x

k’i biri ni x ye

to cover oneself with x

duloki

shirt

tabulo

chalkboard

segi

basket

taji (pitɔrɔli)

kerosene

sεsi (sigilan)

chair

tɔrɔsi

flash light

dεbεn

mat

kaye

copy book

birifini

blanket

li

bed

kiriyon

pencil

pili

battery

safinε

soap

sukaro

sugar

finfin (saribon)

charcoal

fini

cloth

salidaga

kettle

lanpan

kerosene lamp

ka x furan

to sweep x

ka x ko

to wash ka x mεnε/ka x tugu to light

ka x kε y kɔnɔ/la

to put x(liquid) in y

ka x siri

to tie x/to fasten x

k’i fifa

to fan one self

ka x tigε

to cut x

ka x (da) tugu

to close x / to shut x

ka x jaabi

to answer x

ka x lajε

to look at x/to watch x

COMMON EXPRESSIONS

a tɔgɔ?

what is its name?

nin tɔgɔ?

what is the name of this?

nin bε fɔ cogodi bamanankan na?

how do you say this in bambara?

nin kɔrɔ?

what is the meaning of this?

nin bε wele cogodi?

how do you call this?

n m’a faamu

I didn’t undersdand it

a fɔ tuguni

say it again.

segin a kan

repeat it ( again )

i ko di?/i ko mun?/i ye mun fɔ?

what did you say?

n m’a mεn

I didn’t hear it

i y’a mεn wa?

did you hear it?

i y’a faamu?

did you understand it?

x don

it is x

x tε

it is not x

nin lajε

look at this/watch this

mun don?

what is it?

jɔn don?

who is it?

nin ye mun ye?

what is that?

nin ye jɔn ye?

who is this?

nin ye x ye

this is x / that is x

nin tε x ye

this is not x

fεn jumεn?

what (thing)?

a fɔ dɔɔni dɔɔni

say it slowly

a fɔ ka pεrεn

say it loudly

ɲininkali bε n fε

I have a question

GRAMMAR The possessive case:

The possessive adjective: The only Bambara word “ ka “ translates the possessive adjectives my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their in English.

e.g:

Table 5. 1
* S
ka + obj.Subj ‘sobj.

* N

ka

saki

my bag.

* John

ka

so

John‘s house

* U

ka

kalanso

Their classroom

Table 6. 2
* S + ka + obj. + donIt’s Subj.’s obj.

* N ka duloki don

It’s my shirt.

* A ka sigilan don

It’s his chair.

Table 7. 3
* Nin ye + S + ka + Obj. yeThis is Subj.’s Obj

* Nin ye jɔn ka saki ye?

Whose bag is this?

* Nin ye n ka saki ye.

This is my bag.

“ Ka “ never varies. It is the possessed object which takes the plural form.

e.g:

A ka sigilanw

His chairs.

An ka sakiw

Our bags.

We don’t use “ Ka “ with the family or intimate relations and the parts of the body.

e.g:

N fa donIt’s my father.

Nin ye n ba ye.

This / that is my mother.

A tericε don.

It’s your friend.

I da

Your mouth.

The possessive pronoun “ ta “

The word “ ta “ replaces the object possessed. It translates the English words: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs according to the subject.

i

Subj. + ta + don

It is Subj.’s

Subj. + ta + tε

It is not Subj.’s

e.g:

N ka saki don.

It is my bag.

N ta don

It is mine.

Aw ta tε.

It’s not yours.

ii

----

Nin + ye + Subj.+ta + ye

This is Subj.’s

Nin + tε + Subj.+ta + ye

This is not Subj.’s

e.g:

Nin ye n ka samara ye.

This is my shoe.

Nin ye n ta ye

This is mine.

Nin tε John ka samara ye.

This is not John’s shoe.

Nin tε John ta ye.

This is not John’s.

“ta “ always replaces an object possessed which we mentioned before. When objects possessed are many, “ ta “ becomes “ taw “ ( plural form. ).

e.g:

John ka bikiw don. A taw don.

Table 8. The emphatic personal pronouns
Simple pronounsEmphatics---

n

ne

I me

i

e

you

a

ale

he, him; she,her; it

an

anw

we us

aw

aw

you

u

olu

they them

The emphatic “ de “

It is used when we want to insist on the situation. It always goes with the emphatic pronouns.

e.g:

Jɔn ka biki don?

Whose pen is it?

Ne de ka biki don.

It is my pen.

Ne de ta don.

It is mine.

The emphatic pronouns can be subjects too whenever we put an emphasis on a factor or situation.

e.g:

Ne de bε bɔ Ameriki.

It’s me who comes from USA.

Ale de bε taa Bamako.

It’s him who goes to Bamako.

Using the structure:

Subj. + bε + Obj. + V + ni + x + ye Subj. + V + with the Obj.

e.g: N bε so furan ni furalan ye. I sweep the house with the broom. A bε ji ta ni shiyo ye. He/she takes water with the bucket.

This structure can be used only with the objects we can take easily with our hands work with.

The above structure is used to answer to the question below

Subj. + bε + mun + kε + ni + x + ye? What does Subj. do with x?

e.g: I bε mun kε ni alimεti ye? What do you do with the matches? N bε lanpan mεnε ni alimεti ye. I light the kerosene lamp with the matches.

But when the object is not taken to work with the question is:

Subj. + bε + mun + kε + Obj. + la/na?

e.g: I bε mun kε taji la? What do you do with the kerosene?

N bε taji kε lanpan kɔnɔ. I put the kerosene in the kerosene lamp.

EXERCISES

  • Translate the following sentences in Bambara:

    1. No it is not his. _

    2. It is ours. _

    3. No they are mines. _

    4. It is mine. _

    5. It’s me who comes from USA. _

    6. It’s him who goes to Bamako. _

  • Ask people the name of things you want to know.

With a someone’s help:

  • Identify at least five objects of your choice in the court yard;

  • Identify at least five objects in your room;

  • Identify at least five objects in the kitchen.

DENBAYA / SOMƆGƆW

TALKING ABOUT THE FAMILY

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Cite six family relationships in your host family.

    2. Tell exactly the profession of three family members and where they live.

    3. Tell the social status and the age of, at least, three family members in the target language.

Amadu ka denbaya filε. A muso tɔgɔ Assa. A denw tɔgɔ Fanta, Madu, Awa ani Seku.

  1. In Bambara the family, we refers to the extended one.

  2. Cousins are considered as siblings and there is a joking relationship between them as well as between sisters-in-law and brothers-in-law, or grand parents and grand children.

VOCABULARY FAMILY MEMBERS

bangebaa/mansa

parent

ba

mother

muso

woman/wife

dencε/denkε

son

balima

sibling

balimamuso

sister

kɔrɔcε/kɔrɔkε

older brother

dɔgɔ

younger

dɔgɔmuso

younger sister

mɔmuso

grandmother

bεnkε

uncle

fa

father

man/husband

den

child

denmuso

daughter

balimakε

brother

kɔrɔ

elder

kɔrɔmuso

older sister

dɔgɔcε/dɔgɔkε

younger brother

mɔkε

grandfather

mɔden

grandchild

tεnεmuso

aunt

SOME EXPRESSIONS

x sigilen don + place/x sigilen bε + place

x is settled + place

n tε n bangebaaw bara

I don’t live at my parent’s

x balolen don

x is alive

x balolen tε

x isn’t alive

x sara/x bana

x is dead

x furulen don

x is married

x furulen tε

x isn’t married

x furu salen don

x is divorced

x ye cεganan ye

x is a bachelor/single

x ye musoganan ye

x is single

x kɔrɔlen don

x is old

x san ye + number ye/x ye san + number

x is number year old

GRAMMAR Possessive “ Fε “

i- Possessive “have“ in English is commonly expressed in Bambara by what we call a locative construction. These constructions do not contain verbs. They consist of a noun (or noun phrase) followed by the auxiliary bε or tε, fε followed by a postpositional phrase (a noun or noun phrase followed by a postposition). A postposition is much like a preposition with the exception that it follows its object rather than preceding it.

Locative construction:

Noun + Aux. + Noun + Post.

ii- The most common postposition for expressing possession is Fε, which translates very roughly into English as "with". But here it means have. e.g.:

a)- Affirmative form: Object + bε + Subject + fε Subject have the Object Biki bε n fε. I have a pen.

b)- Negative form: Object + tε +Subject + fε Subject have not the Object Den tε n fε. I have not a child.

c)- Interrogative form: Object + bε +Subject + fε (wa) ? Den bε i fε? Do you have a child?

EXERCISES

  • Answer the following questions in full sentences.

    1. Balima joli b’i fε?

    2. Den joli b’i bangebaw fε? _

    3. I balimaw bε min? ___

    4. I balima jumεn sigilen b’i bangebaw bara? __

    5. I bangebaw bε mun baarakε? ___

    6. Jɔn ye kalanden ye ekɔliba la aw ka so?

    7. Jɔn bε sokɔnɔbaara kε aw ka so?

    8. I balimaw ye san joli ye? __

    9. I n’i mɔkε ani i mɔmuso sigilen bε dugu kelen kɔnɔ wa? _

  • Translate into Bambara.

    1. My sister has a daughter.

    2. They have too many children.

    3. My brother is not yet married.

    4. His father is a teacher.

    5. My mother works at the hospital.

    6. Their sisters live in England.

    7. She has ten brothers and five sisters.

    8. We have good trainers.

    9. You’re my brother.

    10. My aunt is divorced.

SANNI

SHOPPING

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. use efficiently the local money in a market without your notes.

    2. Buy two or three items in a market or a shop.

Mun ni mun bε sɔrɔ nin sugu la?

DIALOG

Samba

Kiliyan! Kiliyan! Na yan! Bagi ɲumanw bε yan!

Amadu

I ni sɔgɔma! N bε bagi ɲumanw fε, nka da duman!

Samba

Ola, i sera a yɔrɔ la. Ne ka bagiw bεε da ka nɔgɔn. U lajε.

Amadu

Nin mεtiri ye joli ye?

Samba

N b’o da diya i la! O mεtiri ye kεmε saba ni bi duuru ye. Kɔmi e don, barika b’a la

Amadu

Ayiwa! A barika, caman bɔ a la.

Samba

A ka ɲi forokiya la. I b’a san joli?

Amadu

A to kεmε fila la. N bε mεtiri wɔɔrɔ san.

Samba

A kari kari ye kεmε saba ye. Nka, i bε se ka kεmε fila ni bi duuru sara.

Amadu

I ni ce! Mεtiri wɔɔrɔ ye wa fila ni dɔrɔmε kεmε ye. Hɔn! warimisεn segin.

Samba

Fini ni warimisεn filε. I kεnε k’a kɔrɔ!

Amadu

Amiina! Ka sugu diya!

VOCABULARY MONEY SYSTEM

In Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali, the monetary unit is dɔrɔmε kelen. It equals five francs.

5F =

dɔrɔmε kelen

10F =

dɔrɔmε fila

25F =

(dɔrɔmε) duuru

50F =

(dɔrɔmε) tan

100F =

(dɔrɔmε) mugan

250F =

(dɔrɔmε) biduuru

500F =

(dɔrɔmε) kεmε

1000F =

(dɔrɔmε) kεmε fila

2500F =

(dɔrɔmε) kεmε duuru

5000F =

(dɔrɔmε) waa kelen

10.000F =

(dɔrɔmε) waa fila

Table 9. Market Vocabulary
butigi

the shop

sugu

the market

sannikεla

the buyer

warimisεn

change/coins

sanni

shopping

falen

change

butigitigi

the shop keeper

feerekεla

the seller

wari

money

sɔngɔ/da

price

feere

selling

tεrεmεli

bargaining

BUTIGI KƆNƆFƐNW (THINGS IN THE SHOP)

safinε soap safinε mugu soap powder kafe coffee alimεti matches tulu oil sigεrεti cigarette te tea buru bread shokola chocolate pili battery buru kala (kelen) loaf of bread lεtiriforoko envelop sukaro sugar pati tooth paste kaye note book bɔrɔsi tooth brosh bɔnbɔn candy biki pen nɔnɔ milk nɔnɔ mugu milk powder nɔnɔ jiman concentrated milk shεfan eggs

SUGULAFƐNW ( THINGS IN THE MARKET)

yiriden fruit lenburukumun lemon lenburuba orange namasa banana mangoro mango jabibi pineapple manje papaya

NAFƐNW (INGREDIENTS)

sogo meat jεgε fish jaba onion lenburuba orange tigadεgε peanut butter tamati tomato namasa banana shu cabbage foronto pepper ngan ocra ngɔyɔ egg plant layi garlic

OTHER THINGS

bagi material fini cloth tafe pagne sanbara/samara shoes duloki a shirt kulusi pants mɔnturu a watch

HAKεW (MEASURES)

sara pile (tiga sara/a pile of peanut ) litiri a liter litiri tilancε a half of litre pake a pack

SOME EXPRESSIONS FOR BARGAINING

ayiwa o.k. hɔn take it ka x san to buy x ka x feere to sell x ka x falen to make change ka x tεrεmε to bargain ka x segin to give back x x bana x is finished x ye joli ye? how much is x x da/sɔngɔ ka gεlεn x is expensive x + bε + place (la) x is at place dɔ bɔ a la reduce it a barika reduce or increase it a san x (la) buy it at …​price a di yan x (la) give it to me at …​ price wariko don I have no money i kari kari ye joli ye? what is your last price? o t’a sɔrɔ you can’t have it at this price x da/sɔngɔ ka nɔgɔn /ka di/man gεlεn x is cheap x + bε + Pers + bolo/x + bε Pers + fε to have objet + bε sɔrɔ place (la) object is found at place

GRAMMAR THE PAST DEFINITE

The past in bambara is grouped into categories: Regular verbs and irregular Verbs. All verbs requiring an object, all verbs ending by kε and all reflexive verbs are regular. In transitive constructions the past is indicated by the auxiliary ye. In the negative, the past is formed in the same way for both transitive and intrasitive constructions: the auxiliary is ma in regular auxiliary position.

Here are their structures:

Regular Verbs

Transitive Constructions:

  • Don go don sɔgɔma, n bε kafe min. (Present tense)

  • Bi sɔgɔma, n ye mɔni min. (Past definite)

  • Kunun, n taara sugu la.

Table 10. i
Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subj + yε + Obj + V

Subj + ma + Obj + V

Bi sɔgɔma, n ye safinε san butigi la.

Bi sɔgɔma, n ma safinε san butigi la.

This morning I bought soap in the shop.

This morning I didn’t buy soap in the shop

Interrogative form:

---

Subj + yε + Obj + V (wa)?

Subj + ma + Obj + V (wa)?

Bi sɔgɔma, i ba ye ji kalaya joona wa?

Surɔ i ma dute min wa?

Did your mom heat water earlier this morning?

Didn’t you drink tea last night?

Table 11. ii
Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subj + ye+ Vkε + Obj + postp

Subj + ma+ Vkε + Obj +postp

A ye baarakε kɔridelapε la

U ma sεnεkε foro la.

Interrogative form:

----

Subj + ye + Vkε + Obj + postp (wa)?

Subj + ma + Vkε + Obj +postp (wa)?

I ye barokε i somɔgɔw fε surɔ wa?

I ma sεbεnnikε kalanso kɔnɔ?

Table 12. iii)
Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subj + ye + Pron + V

Subj + ma + Pron + V

N ye n ko bi sɔgɔma.N ma n da joona surɔ.

I washed myself this morning

I did not lie down early last night.

Interrogative form:

Subj + ye + Pron + V (wa)?

Subj + ma + Pron + V (wa)?

I y’i ko bi sɔgɔma (wa)?

Aw m’aw da joona surɔ?

Irregular Verbs

  • Intransitive Constructions:

In intransitive constructions the auxiliary is the suffix ra or na or la attached to the verb.

a) Suffix Ra ra is the basic form

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subj + Vra + Compl + postp

Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp

Kunun, n taara sugu la

Aw ma taa sugu la kunun.

Yesterday I went to the market.

Yesterday I didn’t go to the market.

Interrogative form:----

header row

Subj + Vra + Compl + postp (wa)?

Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp (wa)?

Aw sunɔgɔra joona surɔ?

Aw ma sunɔgɔ joona surɔ?

Did you sleep early last night?

b)- Suffix Na na: after nasal consonants

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subj + Vna + Compl + postp

Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp

An kununna joona

Aw ma kuma u fε.

Interrogative form:----

Subj + Vna + Compl + postp (wa)?

Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp (wa)?

Aw kumana u fε wa?

Aw ma kuma u fε?

Did you talk to them?

Didn’t you talk to them?

c) Suffix La la: if the consonant immediately preceding is an l

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subj + Vla + Compl + postp

Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp

Kunun wula fε an bolila dugu sira kεrεfε.

Aw ma boli bi sɔgɔma.

Yesterday afternoon we ran by the road.

You did not run this morning.

Interrogative form:---

Subj + Vla + Compl + postp (wa)?

Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp (wa)?

Aw wulila joona bi sɔgɔma?

Aw ma boli bi sɔgɔma?

Did you wake up early this morning?

Didn’t you run this morning?

Time expressions

Here are some time expressions going with the past definite.

surɔ

last night

kunun

yesterday

kunasinin

the day before yesterday

dɔgɔkun tεmεnen

last week

kalo tεmεnen

last month

salon

last year

EXERCISES

  • Do the following matching game:

  1. kεmε

  2. kεmε saba

  3. kεmε wɔrɔ ni biduuru

  4. wa kelen ni kεmε segin ni biwolonfila ni kelen

  5. wa kelen ni kεmε

  6. mugan ni fila

  7. tan ni naani

  8. dɔrɔmε kɔnɔntɔn

  1. 9355F

  2. 5500F

  3. 70F

  4. 110F

  5. 45F

  6. 3250F

  7. 500F

  8. 1500F

  • Do the following matching game:

  1. dɔ bɔ a la/a barika

  2. i b’a san joli?

  3. o t’a sɔrɔ.

  4. i kari kari ye joli?

  5. hɔn.

  6. safinε banna.

  7. duloki ye joli ye?

  8. wari di yan.

  9. safinε bε sɔrɔ butigi la.

  10. nɔnɔ banna.

  11. buru tε yan.

  12. tiga dɔrɔmε tan na di yan.

  13. kεmε falen b’i bolo wa?

  14. warimisεn segin.

  15. mun b’i kun?

  1. what do you have on you?

  2. what’s your last price?

  3. how much is the shirt?

  4. have it.

  5. how much do you pay for it?

  6. reduce the price.

  7. that cannot afford it.

  8. give the money.

  9. give the change back.

  10. can you change 500F?

  11. you can find soap in the shop.

  12. there is no bread.

  13. soap is finished.

  14. give me peanut for 50F.

  15. milk is finished

  • Change the following sentences into the past definite

    1. N bε namasa san sugu la. _

    2. An bε na kalanyɔrɔ la sɔgɔma joona. __

    3. A tε sannikε bi.

    4. N bε wuli joona ka boli. ___

    5. I tε foyi kε nakɔ la. _

    6. An bε dumunikε yan dimasi. __

  • Refering to this picture complete this dialogue between Amadu and Samba.

Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Samba

Nba i ni sɔgɔma

Samba

fini mεtiri ye wa kelen ye

Samba

I b’a san joli?

Samba

O t’a sɔrɔ

Samba

Kεmε segin

Samba

Wari di

Samba

K’an b’u fo

  1. In the host village, identify at least five products of your choice from the places below:

    • At the market;

    • In a shop;

    • From a street seller.

Use the board below:

Shop items Market items Fruits/jiridenw Sauce ingredients/nafεnw Others/fεn wεrεw

2- Buy two or three items of your choice in a shop or in the market. * Observe the sellers attitudes before and during buying; * Bargain the prices of items (what were the proposed prices and the ones at which you bought your articles?)

YƆRƆW TAMASERECOGO

ASKING/GIVING DIRECTIONS

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Locate, at least, two places.

    2. Use, at least, three expressions to ask and give directions.

DIALOG

Umaru

A’ ni sɔgɔma!

Amadu

Nba, a’ ni sɔgɔma! Dɔ di!

Umaru

Baasi tε! A’ bε hakε to! N bε dugutigi ka so de ɲinin.

Amadu

Dutigi ka so bε an kεrεfε, An bε se ka taa ɲɔgɔn fε.

Umaru

I ni ce! A sira ɲεfɔ n ye, n yεrε kelen bε se ka taa.

Amadu

Ayiwa! I tilen nin sira kelen in fε. I bε kare saba tεmεn,o kɔ, fara i numan fε. Da naaninan don i kini fε. Mangorosunba bε soda la.

Umaru

I ni baraji! K’an bεn!

Amadu

K’an bε! Ka se ni i ɲuman ye!

Umaru

Amiina!

VOCABULARY

There are some places people refer to locate a given point ( common or public places or buildings,wellknown people…​)

dɔgɔtɔrɔso hospital pɔn bridge yirisunba the big tree dugutigi ka so the village chief’s house siraba the main road pɔnpe pump worodugu south kɔkɔdugu north kɔrɔn east tilebin west. fan side of x x fan fε at x side yan here yen there.

The following expressions are used to lead someone to a certain point.

i tilen ka taa.(fo…​) Go straight.(until…​) fara i numan fε Turn left. fara i kini fε. Turn right. sira tigε. Cross the road tεmεn so la. Pass over the house se so ma. Reach the house.

These other expressions are very polite used by someone who wants a help to find your way.

ɲε n ma! Please, help me! i bε se ka ɲε n ma? Can you help me? haketo! Excuse me! x bε fan jumεn fε? Where is x ? x yɔrɔ ka jan wa? Is x far? a ma jan (wa)? Isn’t it far? a ka ja dɔɔni It’s fairly far x sira bε min? Where is the way to x ? i b’i tilen nin sira fε You go straight on this road. i ni baraji Thanks.

Here are some useful prepositions for giving or receiving directions.

x ɲεfε in front of x x kɔfε behind x x kɔnɔ in x x kan on x duguma on the ground x Kɔrɔ under x x kεrεfε next to x x ni y cε between x and y. x kuna above x x cεmancε la at the center of x x sanfïε above x

The are other common words you meet in the context of giving or receiving directions.

ka x ɲinin to look for x ka x jira pers. la/na to show x to pers. ka fili to make an error ka tunun to be lost x tununnen don x is lost x ka jan y la/na x is far from y k’i munumunu x kɔfε to go around x

The Ordinal numbers are built on the cardinal numbers by adding nan, except for fɔlɔ (first) and laban (last). Here are some examples:

Cardinal numbersOrdinal numbers

kelen

fɔlɔ

first

fila

filanan

second

saba

sabanan

third

naani

naaninan

fourth

x laban

laban

last.

  1. In big cities, people hesitate to indicate somebody’s house. (Because of security issues)

  2. Always double-check when you are given a direction.

  3. “He who asks doesn’t get lost”.

GRAMMAR The Imperative

a)- The Imperative in Bambara is used for making polite requests, suggestions or commands.

                  Affirmative form:                              Negative form:
                   (obj) + Verb                                   kana + (obj) + Verb
e.g:              - Ji min! (Drink water!)                       kana ji min!
                  - I ko! (Wash!)                                kan’i ko!
                  - Taa! (Go!)                                   kana taa!

b)- This is formed by using the auxiliary ka in the affirmative and kana in the negative. Affirmative form: Negative form: Suj + ka + (obj) + Verb Suj + kana +(obj) + Verb

e.g: An ka ji min! (Let’s drink water!) Aw kana kɔlɔnnaji min! An k’an ko! (Let’s wash!) I kan’i ko kɔji la! An ka taa! (Let’s go!) An kana taa!

c)- The second person plural imperative (you all) is frequently formed by using the pronoun a and the auxiliary ye. Affirmative form: Negative form: Suj + ye + (obj) + Verb Suj + kana +(obj) + Verb

e.g: A(w) ye ji min! Aw kana kɔlɔnnaji min! A(w) y’aw ko! Aw kan’aw ko kɔji la! A(w) ye taa! Aw kana taa!

EXERCISES

  • Translate the following sentences into Bambara

    1. Come here. _

    2. Turn left. __

    3. Go straight. _

    4. Cross the third road. _

    5. Come and eat. _

    6. Don’t speak English. _

    7. Speak Bambara. __

    8. Don’t laugh.

  • Translate the following sentences into Bambara

    1. We are in the classroom.

    2. The blackboard is in front of us.__

    3. My book is on the wall.__

    4. The mosque is in the center of village __

    5. My house is near the shop.

    6. The book is under the table._

    7. Segu is between Bamako and Mopti. _

    8. Sometimes we study outside._

    9. The bag is on the floor.___

  • Translate these sentences into bambara.

    1. Excuse me. Can you show me the way to Bamako.

    2. Good morning brother. I am lost. Do you know where the hospital is?

    3. It is not far from here

    4. Go straight. Cross the fifth road and turn right

    5. Yes, I know him. Do you see the big house other there? It is behind that one.

    6. Is Segou far from Bamako?

    7. Turn around over this red car then turn left and go straight.

    8. The mosque is in front of you.

  • Use the command or the imperative form of these sentences below. Please follow the modeles.

Modeles:

I bε taa sugu la.

taa sugu la.

An bε mangoro dun.

An ka mangoro dun.

Aw tε biyεri min.

A kana biyεri min.

  1. Aw bε lεtεrε ci aw teriw ma.

  2. Aw t’aw ko baji la.

  3. I bε barokε i somɔgɔw fε.

  4. Aw bε kuma bamanankan na tuma bεε

  5. I tε kuma Angilεkan na.

  6. Aw t’aw sigi duguma

  7. I b’i ko don o don

  8. I tε mɔgɔw neni dugu kɔnɔ.

  9. I bε taa dute min i teriw bara

  10. Aw bε na kalanso la joona

MƆGƆ NI FƐNW TAMASERE COGO

DESCRIBING A PERSON, AN OBJECT AND A PLACE

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Name, at least, ten (10) parts of human body.

    2. Describe a person by pointing out, at least, five physical and five moral traits.

    3. Describe an object by giving two or three characteristics without notes.

TEXT

Nin muso in man jan, a man surun. A ɲεkisεw ka kunba, a ɲinw jεlen don. A cεkaɲi. A nison ka di tuma bεε. Mɔgɔ sεbε don.

VOCABULARY PARTS OF THE BODY: FARIKOLO:

bolo(kala)

arm

bolokɔni

finger

da

mouth

disi

chest

kamankun

shoulder

kan

neck

kunbere

knee

kunkolo

head

kɔnɔ

stomach/belly

nun

nose

ɲε

eye

nɔnkɔn

elbow

senkala

leg

senkuru

ankle

sentεgε

foot

tulo

ear

tεgε

hand

woro

thigh

QUALIFIERS ( PHYSICAL )

The following adjectives are used to describe physical traits. x ka jan x is tall x ka surun x is short. x ka bon x is big/fat x ka dɔgɔn x is small x ka kunba x is strong x ka misen x is thin. x ka kɔrɔ x is old x ka fin x is black x ka jε x is light (complexion) x ka girin x is heavy x cεkaɲi x is beautiful (handsome) x cεkajugu x is ugly

QUALIFIERS ( MORAL) These adjectives are used to portray moral state.

x ka jugu x is bad/mean x ka ɲi x is good. x ka farin x is courageous x ka kisε x is devoted/hard working x ka kegun x is clever x nison ka di x is happy/glad x nison man di x is sad x hakili ka di x is intelligent x hakili ka go/( man di) x is stupid (not intelligent)

QUALIFIERS ( TASTE ).

x ka di x is good e.g.: Namasa ka di/Namasa duman don x ka kunan x is bitter e.g.: Woro ka kunan/Woro kunanman don x ka kumun x is sour e.g.: Lenmuru ka kumun/Jiriden kumun don x ka timi x is sweet e.g.: Jabibi ka timi/Jiriden timiman don x ka farin x is hot e.g.:Foronto ka farin/Foronto farinman don x ka go x is bad e.g: Nin jiriden ka go/Jiriden goman don

SOME EXPRESSIONS:

x bε cogodi? How is x? ( What is x like? ) x ɲε bε cogodi ? What color is x? x fεrεlen don. x is spacious/roomy/comfortable x korilen don. x is round. x ka magan. x is smooth. x ka gεlen. x is hard/tough x ka gonin x is hot x ka kalan x is hot x ka di n ye x is good to me ( x likes )

COLORS

Please note the different forms of expressing colors in Bambara. Jεman --- nin ye jεman ye ---- nin jεlen don ----- a ka jε white

Finman --- nin ye finman ye ---- nin finnen don --- a ka fin black

Bilenman --- nin ye bilenman ye ----- nin bilennen don

Bulaman ------ nin ye bulaman ye -------- x bulaman don

Binkεnεman/ɲugujiman — nin ye ɲugujiman ye — ɲugujima don

Nεrεmuguman ---- nin ye nεrεmuguman ye ---- nεrεmuguman don

Lankiriman ----- nin tε bilenman ye ------ lankiriman don

Worojima

Sikɔlɔma

baga

In Mali for most people, mainly with old, rural or illiterate people there are only two concepts of colors: WHITE ( for bright ) and BLACK ( for dark ).

GRAMMAR

1 . ka auxiliary The ka auxiliary is used to express the english is/are in the affirmative.

                 The man is the negative form of ka and it expresses is/are not.
          Affirmative form:                                                 Negative form:
             Subject + ka + adj                                             Subject + man + adj
e.g:      Mike Tyson ka surun.                                              Magic Johnson man surun.
          Mike Tyson is short.                                              Magic Johnson is not short.

Chart of exception As the title indicates, these are exception to the formation of adjectives in Bambara

Table 13. Chart of exception
SVAdjSVNAdj. (man)-SAdj. (man)V

Bob

Ka

bon

Bob

ye

den

belebele(ba)

ye

mɔgɔ

belebele

don

a

Ka

dɔgɔn

a

ye

fitini

ye

fitini

don

i

Ka

jan

i

ye

---

jamanjan

ye

---

jamanjan

don

a

Ka

ɲi

a

ye

---

ɲuman

ye

---

ɲuman

don

n

Ka

kunba

n

ye

---

kunbaba

ye

---

kunbaba

don

a

Ka

di

a

ye

---

duman

ye

---

duman

don

---

Ka

---

---

ye

---

--------

ye

---

--------

don

When you used a substantive ( noun ) to express is, the following is used:

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subject + ye + noun + adj(man) + ye

Subject + tε + noun + adj(man) + ye

e.g:

Mike Tyson ye cε suruman ye.Mike Tyson tε mɔgɔ jïman ye.

Mike Tyson is a short man.

Mike Tyson is not a white person.

The ye…​ ye is negated in tε…​ ye.
  1. The don is used to express is/are ( or it is, they are ) as in the following examples:

    • Mobili bilenman don __ It is a red car.

    • Amerikεn finman don He/She is a black american.

The negative of don is tε

e.g:

Mobili jεman tε It is not a white car. Muso juguman tε ___ She is not a mean woman.

3 . Passive voice “ len/nen “

In this Communicative Task you have been briefly introduced to the Bambara Passive voice. In the following sentence occurred: “Karamɔgɔ jɔlen don kalanso kɔnɔ“. Jɔ is the root of the verb “stand”. jɔlen is a Passive voice.

Passive voice are not used to describe actions, but to describe the state achieved upon completion of the action. The Passive voice is formed for all verbs without exception with the verb root plus the suffix len (which becomes nen in nasal environments.)

e.g:

ka jɔ _ jɔlen ka sεgεn _ sεgεnnen

Affirmative form:Negative form:

Subject + Verb + len/nen + don

Subject + Verb + len/nen + tε

Karamɔgɔ jɔlen don kalanso kɔnɔ.

Kalandenw sεgεnnen tε.

Interrogative Form:

-

Subject + Verb + len/nen + don (wa)?

Subject + Verb + len/nen + tε (wa)?

Kalandenw jɔlen don kalanso kɔnɔ wa?

EXERCISES

  • Identify each part of the body according to the following indications:.

    1. bolokala

    2. tulo

    3. senkɔniw

    4. kɔnɔ

    5. sentεgεw

    6. nɔnkɔn

    7. nun

    8. woro

    9. senkuru

    10. ten

    11. senkala

    12. kunbere

    13. da

    14. bolonkɔni

    15. tεgεkɔ

    16. bolokan

    17. kamankun

    18. ɲε

    19. kan

  • Do as in these examples ( using the modified adjectives). EX.: Nin dute ka gonin. _ Dute gonin(man) don 1-Nin muso ka ɲi 2-Nin cε ka surun 3-Nin jiri ka jan. 4-Nin ji ka suman 5-Nin namasa ka di _ 6-Nin jiriden ka kumun 7-Nin sɔgɔn ka ca _ 8-Nin so ka bon _ 9-Nin mobili ka dogon _ 10-Nin cε ka kunba __

  • Do as in these examples ( using the passive voice). EX: A fa ka kɔrɔ A fa kɔrɔlen don. Bob kunsigi man fin A kunsigi finnen tε. 1.I ka mobili ye bilenman ye wa? 2.A cε man kɔrɔ. _ 3.Madu fari ka fin._ 4.Umaru kunsigi man jε. 5.Nin lenmuru ka kumun wa? 6.Nin so man fεrε. 7.N nison ka di bi.__

  • Translate these sentences into bambara. 1-She’s a tall, dark woman. _ 2-She and her husband are really good people. 3- They have a blue car. 4-They are always happy. _

  • Describe your charming prince/the lady you dream of.

  • Describe a person of your choice. Then, draw him/her respecting your description.

  • Make the portrait of the following persons:

    • The chief of the village or the iman, or the women’s or youth’s leader;

    • One or more trainers of the pre-service training.

  • Describe the tastes of two foods and two drinks. One of each that you like and one of each that you don’t like. Present your description.

  • Visit 2 or3 different places in Bamako. For each place, record whether it’s a big or small one, whether there are lots of people there or not. In short, describe each one of the places visited. Present the results to the class and ask questions on the subject.

  • Identify at least two or three child frequent sicknesses in this season.

FARIKOLO LAHALAW

DESCRIBING ONE’S MENTAL AND PHYSICAL STATE

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. cite, at least, five common sicknesses

    2. ask, at least, one accurate question to get information about someone’s physical state.

    3. formulate two or three blessings to a sick person.

Ablo ni Musa bε min? Ablo ye jɔn ye? Mun bε Musa la?

DIALOG

1
Fanta

g I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. I nisɔn man di, mun b’i la?

Bakari

g N fari man di n na.

Fanta

g I yɔrɔ jumεn b’i dimi?

Bakari

g N ɲin de bε n dimi kojugu bi.

Fanta

g I ye fura ta wa?

Bakari

g Ayi, n bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la.

Fanta

g Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, k’a ban pewu!

Bakari

g Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε.

Fanta

g Amiina.

2
Fanta

g I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. Munna an m’i ye surɔ?

Bakari

g N tun man kεnε.

Fanta

g Ee! Mun tun b’i la?

Bakari

g N kungolo ye n dimi kojugu kunun wulada. Sufε, n ma se ka sunɔgɔ, n fari bεε tun ka kalan.

Fanta

g O bε sɔrɔ sumaya ye dε?

Bakari

g N hakili la, a bε sɔrɔ o ye. N bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la.

Fanta

g I ka kan k’i yεrε tanga sosow ma.

Bakari

g Tiɲε! N bεna sange sulen damadɔ ɲinin n ka denbaya ye. Ola, sumaya ni bana misεnw tεna an tɔɔrɔ.

Fanta

g Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, ka tɔɔrɔ dɔgɔya!

Bakari

g Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε.

Fanta

g Amiina.

VOCABULARY

bana Sickness/disease banabagatɔ (banabaatɔ) a sick person kεnεya (Good)health bolodimi sore-arm kɔdimi backache kɔnɔdimi stomachache kandimi stiffneck ɲεdimi sore-eye ɲindimi toothache sendimi sorefoot kungolodimi bε x la/na x has a headache

In these expressions it says: sickness is at the person

dimi translates - ache kungolo bε a dimi x head is aching him/her N ɲin bε n dimi my tooth is aching me

This means person’s part of body is hurting : him/her
MOST COMMON DISEASES:

kɔnɔboli diarrhea tɔkɔtɔkɔni dysentery sumaya malaria murafarigan flu Sɔgɔsɔgɔ bε Paul la Mura bε Tom la Kungolodimi bε John la Paul has a cough Tom has a cold John has a headache

Kɔnɔdimi bε Lucie la                              Farigan bε Sarah la
Lucie has stomachache                             Sarah has a fever

n man kεnε I am sick i yɔrɔ jumεn b’i dimi? Which part of your body is hurting you? i fan jumεn b’i dimi? Which part of your body is hurting you? mun b’i la ? What is the matter with you? kɔngɔ bε x la/na x is hungry salaya lazy n sεgεnnen don I am tired n tɔɔrɔlen don I am pained n degunnen don I am suffering n dusukasilen don I am sad n nisɔn ka di I am happy n nisɔn diyalen tε I am not happy fosi/Foyi tε x la x has nothing

SOME EXPRESSIONS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES:
kɔngɔ       hungry        minɔgɔ       thirsty
funteni     hot                  nεnε cold
DUGAW         BLESSINGS
Ala ka nɔgɔyakε                  May God grant relief.
Ala k'a tɔɔrɔ dɔgɔya ...         May the pain lessen.
Ala ka sini fisaya ni bi ye      May tomorow be better than today
Ala k'i segin i yεrε ma          May you come back to yourself
Ala k'a kε jurumu kafari ye      May it be a sin expiator.
Ala ka dugaw jabi                May God answer the blessings

SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY:

banakisε microbe banaba leprosy banakunbεn prevention kεnεyaji oral rehydration water kεnεyaba(ga)tɔ a healthy person dusukundimi palpitation kumabin migraine sumu dental decay sumuni boil joli a wound nε pus kankɔnɔdimi/mimi sorethroat kaba ringworm fa madness jawuli scatteredbrain hakiliwuli mental fatigue x kɔsalen (don) x is energyless x walakalen (don) x open, extravert mun ye x sɔrɔ? what happened to x mun binna/cunna x kan? what struck x? mun gεrεgεrε ye x sɔrɔ? what unexpected thing (mishap) happened to x k’i mun to apply an ointment k’i digidigi to get a massage k’i wusu to transpire through smoke or vapour k’i furakε to cure oneself ka sogolikε to get an injection ka biɲεturu to give an injection (muso) jiginninso maternity dɔkɔtɔrɔ doctor dɔkɔtɔrɔso hospital ka fura ta to take pills ka furakisε kunun to take a pill ka furaji min to drink (a drinkable) k’i boloci to get vaccinated ka pikirikε to get an injection

GRAMMAR

  • Here are some ways to say that someone is (not) sick.

       Affirmative form:                                           Negative form:
    Part of body + dimi + bε + Pers. +la/na                 Part of body + dimi + tε + Pers. + la/na
       Kungolo dimi bε John la.                             Kɔdimi tε Sarah la.
                                      Interrogative Form:
    Part of body + dimi + bε + Pers. +la (wa)? Part of body + dimi + tε + Pers. +la (wa)?
       Kungolo dimi b’i la wa?                              Mura tε Tom la?
  • THE IMPERFECT TENSE: Tun bε

tun bε/tun tε is the auxiliary element for the Imperfect tense in Bambara.
   Affirmative form:                                           Negative form:
Suj + tun bε + obj + Verb                               Suj + tun tε + obj + Verb
   Soso tun bε Bakari cin su o su.                      Bakari tun tε sange sulen siri.
   Kalandenw tun bε kalankε don go don.                 U tun tε baarakε san’u ka na Mali la.
                                  Interrogative Form:
Suj + tun bε + obj + Verb (wa)?                         Suj + tun tε + obj + Verb (wa)?
Soso tun bε Bakari cin su o su?                         Bakari tun tε sange sulen siri wa?
Kalandenw tun bε yaala Ameriki kɔsεbε wa?               U tun tε sunɔgɔ joona sufε?
tun ka/tun man is the auxiliary element for the Imperfect tense with adjectives in Bambara.
 Affirmative form:                                           Negative form:
  Suj + tun ka + Adj                                  Suj + tun man + Adj
A tun ka di    It was good/pleasant.                  A tun man di.
  • Here are some ways to say that someone was sick.

             Affirmative form:                                         Negative form:
    Part of body + dimi + tun bε + Pers. +la/na         Part of body + dimi + tun tε + Pers. +la/na
    Kungolo dimi tun bε John la.                        Kɔdimi tun tε Sarah la.
                                         Interrogative Form:
    Part of body + dimi + tun bε + Pers. +la (wa)? Part of body + dimi + tun tε + Pers. +la?
    Kungolo dimi tun b’i la wa?                         Mura tun tε Tom la?
  • THE FUTURE TENSE: bεna (bε) NOTE: bεna (bε)/tεna(tε) is the auxiliary element for the Future tense in Bambara.

    Affirmative form:                                         Negative form:
    Suj + bεna + obj + Verb                                   Suj + tεna + obj + Verb
    Soso bεna Bakari cin su o su.                             Bakari tεna sange sulen siri.
    Suj + bεna + Verb + Obj                                   Suj + tεna + Verb + Obj
    Kalandenw bεna kalankε don go don.                        U tεna yaala dɔrɔn Mali la.
                                 Interrogative Form:
     Suj + bεna + obj + Verb (wa)?                             Suj + tεna + obj + Verb (wa)?
     Soso bεna Bakari cin su o su?                             Bakari tεna sange sulen siri?
    Sumaya bεna Bakari minε?                                   Bakari tεna kεnεya sɔrɔ (wa)?
    Suj + bεna + Verb (wa)?                                   Suj + tεna + Verb (wa)?
    Kalandenw bεna barokε dugumɔgɔw fε wa?                    U tεna taa Ameriki sisan?
  • Here are some ways to say that someone will be sick.

       Affirmative form:                                         Negative form:
    Sickness/disease + bεna + Pers. +minε                 Sickness/disease + tεna + Pers. +minε
    Farigan bεna Tom minε barisa mura b’a la.             Sumaya tεna Sarah minε barisa a bε fura ta.
    Sumaya bεna Bakari minε.
                                   Interrogative Form:
    Sickness/disease + bεna + Pers. + minε (wa)?          Sickness/disease + tεna + Pers. + minε?
    Farigan bεna Tom minε wa?                             Sumaya tεna Sarah minε?

EXERCISES

  • Translate these sentences into bambara. A: Are you sick? ? B: Yes, I am sick. . A: What do you have? ? B: I have a cold. _. A: Do you need pills? _? B: No, thank you. _. I am tired. . I am sleepy. . A: May the pain lessen. . B: Amen. .

    • Refering to the picture make a dialog between Fanta and Ablo

Ablo: I ni sɔgɔma, Fanta. I nisɔn man di, mun bε den na? Fanta: A fari man d’a la. Ablo: Fanta: Ablo: Fanta:

  • Fill in the blanks by using the appropriate auxiliary. Tuma min, n camancε lakɔli la, n kegun dɔɔni. N marabatiga cimin kalanso kɔnɔ. N (neg) taa farikolo ɲanajε kε yɔrɔ la tuma bεε. Ne ni n teriw taa kalanso kɔfε ka sigarεti min. N basikεti ton na, nka n npogotigininw lajε dɔɔrɔn. N (neg) kalankε kɔsεbε nka n ko di karamɔgɔ ye. N karamɔgɔw dεmε ka kalansow labεn. O kɔsɔn, u hakili la n _ kalanden ɲuman ye.

  • Fill in the blanks by using the appropriate auxiliary. Surɔ n _ dakabana sogo kε. N mobili kura dɔ boli la. N cεkɔrɔnin dɔ ye sira kan n ɲε fε. A ka sira tigε fali kan. Cεkɔrɔnin n ye nka a tεmεn a ka sira fε. N ’a ɲinin ka mobili lajɔ nka a fεrεnw (neg) sɔn. N ’a fε ka kule nka n da _ (neg) se ka yεlε. Mobili ka girin. N _ _ cεkɔrɔnin faga wa? Yɔrɔnin kelen, mobili jεnsεn. N _ n yεrε sɔrɔ, n sigilen dugumakolo kan; mobili walan _ n bolo kɔnɔ. Cεkɔrɔnin _ n lajε i n’a fɔ foyi _ (neg) kε. A _ n ɲininka, “ E _ taa min tan?”

  • Say how the person in each of these picture is feeling.

    1. _

    2. _

    3. _

    4. _

    5. _

    6. _

    7. _

    8. _

    9. _

    10. _

  • Refering to the picture do the following matching:

    Treated mosquito net             Sange sulen

1 Sange su ji la, a yεlεma siɲε caman f’a ka ji min miniti 5 kɔnɔ.

2 I tεgεw ni tasaba ko k’u jε ni safinε ye.

3 Sange fεnsεn sumaman yɔrɔ la, k’a laja.

4 San’i k’a daminε, ganw don.

5 Ji tɔ ni ganw kε dingε kɔnɔ, walima u fili ɲεgεn kɔnɔ.

6 I ka sange sulen siri, i ka sunɔgɔ i lakananen.

7 Ji litiri 1 kε tasaba kɔnɔ.

8 Bulɔku kisε kε ji la, a ka yelen.

9 Ji ni bulɔku ɲagami.

  • Identify at least four activities of a man and five activities of a woman during day time.

DELINAKOW

TALKING ABOUT DAILY ACTIVITIES

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Cite, at least, four daily activities of a man and four of a woman according to the different periods of the day without your notes.

    2. Cite five activities of your own by him/herself.

    3. Cite, at least, five daily or seasonal activities according to the gender, and the age without assistance.

    4. Tell your daily timetable to your host family without help.

Nin musow bε ka mun kε? Aw ka dugu musow bε ji bɔ kɔlɔn na don go don wa? Dugu kɔnɔ cεw bε mun kε don go don?

TEXT

Musow ka baara dugumisεnw kɔnɔ. Dugumisεnw kɔnɔ, musow ka baara ka ca. U bε wuli kabini fajiri. U bε fɔlɔ ka ji bɔ kɔlɔn na. U bε tasuma mεnε ka koliji kalaya. U bε yɔrɔw furan ka sɔro ka daraka tobi. Daraka mana dun, u bε minan nɔgɔw ko. U bε susulikε, u bε fini nɔgɔw ko, u bε denw ladon. Mali dugumisεn musow sεgεnnen!

VOCABULARY

fajiri dawn (sunrise) selifana around 2 PM. tilegan the heat of the day la(g)ansara around 4 PM. fitiri dusk (sunset) saafo around 8 PM. gεrεn club k’I lafiɲε to rest k’i yalayala to have a walk ka taa foro la to go to the field ka sεnεkε to farm ka so jɔ to build a house ka te wuli to make tea ka marasi bɔ to play cards. ka balɔn tan to play football. ka mɔnnikε to fish. ka nɔnnikε to swim. k’i nɔn to swim. k’i ɲεnajε to have fun ka soli ka to do something early in the morning. ka fɔlɔ ka to begin by/with ka laban ka to finish by/then o kɔ after it/that k’a ɲinin ka to try to ka sɔrɔ ka then ka tila ka to finish by kabini since fo till. sani (yani) before, since fɔlɔ/fɔlɔ fɔlɔ first/at first/long ago/formerly ntεnεn Monday tarata Tuesday araba Wednesday alamisa Thursday juma Friday sibiri Saturday kari/dimasi Sunday don o don/don go don every day sɔgɔma o sɔgɔma every morning joona early, quickly

GRAMMAR

  • THE HYPOTHETICAL FUTURE: with mana

mana is the auxiliary that marks what is called the hypothetical future in Bambara. It is often used like a conditional sentence with “if”, “when” or “whenever” in English. Mana is always found in a subordinate clause in Bambara.

e.g: N bε taa n ka dugu la, n bε baara daminε. N mana taa n ka dugu la, n bε baara daminε.

Affirmative form:
Subj + mana + (obj) +Verb + Subj + bε(na) + (obj) + Verb…
Fanta mana daraka dun, a bε(na) minan nɔgɔw ko.
If Fanta eats breakfast, she will wash the dishes.
Subj + mana +Verb + Subj + bε(na) + (obj) + Verb…
Fanta mana wuli, a bε(na) ji bɔ kɔlɔn na.
If Fanta gets up, she will draw water from the well.
                       Negative form:
NOTE: mana is not used in the negative form. The negative form is used with ni.
  • THE CONDITIONAL TENSE: with ni

When the past occurs with ni in the firts clause, it is not referring to past action but rather to something that will have happened in the future. Affirmative form:
Ni + Subj + (obj) +Verb (Past tense)+ Subj + bε(na) + (obj) + Verb…
Ni Fanta ye daraka dun, a bε(na) minan nɔgɔw ko..
If Fanta eats breakfast, she will wash the dishes.
Negative form:
Ni + Subj + ma (obj) +Verb (Past tense)+ Subj + tε(na) + (obj) + Verb…
Ni Fanta ma minan nɔgɔw ko, a tε(na) i lafiɲε.
If Fanta does not wash the dishes, she will not take a rest.
  • CONTREFACTUAL CONDITIONAL:

In contrefactual conditional sentences that involve tun plus the completive in the first clause. The second clause can be compled with the future auxiliary bεna or tεna preceded by tun.
Ni + Subj + tun + (obj) +Verb (Past tense)+ Subj + tun bεna/tεna + (obj) + Verb…
Ni n tun ye wari sɔrɔ, n tun bεna mobili san
If I had gotten money, I would have bought a car.
Ni n tun taara, an tun tεna ɲɔgɔn ye.
If I had gone, we wouldn’t have seen each other.

EXERCISES

  • Arrange the scrambled words in the boxes to form complete sentences: 1 n n fajiri ka bε kabini wuli ko

2 Don o don Fanta Daraka fɔlɔ tobi bε

3 fa la soli Ka bε n baarayɔrɔ taa

4 n taa la Sani dun ka ekɔli bε Daraka fɔlɔ ka n

  • Do as indicated in this example: e.g.: N bε taa n ka dugu la, n bε baara daminε. N mana taa n ka dugu la, n bε(na) baara daminε.

    1-     sibiri bε se, an b’an lafiɲε.________________________________________________
    2-     a bε nakɔ sεnε, a bε nakɔfεn caman dun.___________________________________
    3-     u bε surafana dun, u bε dute wuli._________________________________________
    4-     an bε tila kalan na, an bε barokε an somɔgɔw fε. ____________________________
    5-     dugu bε jε, n terikε bε soli ka na denkundi la. ______________________________
  • Transform the following sentences into the negative form. e.g.: N bε mobili sɔrɔ, n bε taa Bamako. Ni n ma mobili sɔrɔ, n tε taa bamako.

    1- Baara bε jigin, an bε marasi bɔ______________________________________________
    2- N bε soli ka wuli, n bε fini nɔgɔw ko.________________________________________
    3- Fitiri bε se, u bε taa misiri la._______________________________________________
    4- “Stage” bε ban, an bε nisɔndiya._____________________________________________
    5- An bε surafana dun, an bε te wuli.___________________________________________
  • Do as indicated in this example: e.g.: n bε taa Bamako, n bε tilen yen ni n taara Bamako, n bε (na) tilen ye.

    1   sanji bε na, an tε taa yɔrɔ la. ________________________________________________
    2   fitiri bε se, u bε taa misiri la.________________________________________________
    3   n bε surafana dun, n bε tele lajε.____________________________________________
    4   a bε mankankε, n tε se ka sunɔgɔ. __________________________________________
    5   n bε mobili sɔrɔ ka ta Bamako, o bε diya n ye. ________________________________
    • Complete the following sentences according to the structure of conditional: 1- Fanta mana ji bɔ kɔlɔn na, a (ka minan nɔgɔwko).___

      2- Fanta mana minan nɔgɔw ko, a (k'i lafiɲε dɔɔni).______________________________
      3- Fanta man'i lafiɲε dɔɔni, a (ka taa lɔgɔ ɲini).__________________________________
      4- Fanta ka baara mana ban, a (k'i da ka sunɔgɔ).________________________________
      3- Ni "stage" banna, a (ka taa an ka duguw la ).__________________________________
      4- Ni Fanta denw ye tilelafana dun, u (ka taa lɔgɔ ɲini ).__________________________
  • Turn the following sentences into the negative form: 1- Ni Fanta ye tasuma mεnε, a bε ji kalaya._ 2- A mana wuli joona, a denw bε daraka dun joona.__

    3- N'a banna baara la, a b'i lafiɲε dɔɔni._________________________________________
    4- A mana lïtiri sɔrɔ, a bεna nisɔndiya kosïbε.____________________________________
  • Combine according to the following sentences:

e.g.: N bε surafana dun, n bε taa dɔnkεyɔrɔ la. 1- N mana surafana dun, n bε taa dɔnkεyɔrɔ la. 2- Ni n ye surafana dun, n bε taa dɔnkεyɔrɔ la. 1- N bε safinε san, n bε fini ko. 2- I bε taa so; i b’i ko.__

3- Sanji bε na; an b'an lafεɲε gwa kɔrɔ._________________________________________
4- Midi bε se, an bε kalan dabila.______________________________________________
5- Dugu bε jε, n bε soli ka taa Bamako._________________________________________
  • Turn the following sentences into the negative form: e.g.: Ni n wulila joona, n bεna soli ka taa Bamako Ni n ma wuli joona, n tïna soli ka taa Bamako. 1-Ni ye wari sɔrɔ, n bεna mobili kura san. 2-Ni "Stage" banna, an bεna baara daminε.___

    3-Ni n somɔgɔw nana bɔ n ye, n bï nisɔndiya kɔsεbε.____________________________
    4-N'aw ye baarakε, aw bï wari sɔrɔ.___________________________________________
    5-Ni n ye bamanankan mεn kɔsεbε, an bεna baarokε ɲɔgɔnfε._____________________
  • Fill in the blanks by using the appropriate auxiliary.

    1. Fɔlɔ fɔlɔ, dugumisεnw kɔnɔ, musow ka baara _ ca. U _ soli ka wuli kabini

    2. fajiri. U _ fɔlɔ ka ji bɔ kɔlɔn na. O kɔ, u _ tasuma mεnε ka koliji kalaya. U _

    3. yɔrɔw furan ka sɔro ka daraka tobi. Daraka kɔfε, u _ tila ka minan nɔgɔw ko. U _

    4. laban ka susulikε, ka fini nɔgɔw ko. U _ denw ladon nin bεε kɔ.

    5. Mali dugumisεn musow _ sεgεnnen!

TAAMAW

TALKING ABOUT TRAVELING

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

cite the three transportation means. ask three appropriate questions to get informed about the means, the fare and the schedule of transportation use three appropriate expressions to wish welcome or safe trip to a traveler.

TEXT

  1. Taamaw

    Mali mɔgɔw bε taama kɔsɔbε duniya kɔnɔ. U bε taa yɔrɔ caman na. I b’u sɔrɔ Farafinna jamanaw bεε la. Mali denmisεnw bε taama farajεla jamanaw fana kɔnɔ.

    Mali kɔnɔ, mɔgɔw ka taama ka suma, barisa siraw man ɲin. Bolimafεnw man ca, ani u tε se ka taa yɔrɔ bεε. Togodamɔgɔw bε bɔ dugu ni dugu u sen na, nεgεsow la, wotorow la, wala bagaw kan i n’a fɔ: faliw, sow, misiw, ɲɔgɔmεw. Mɔgɔw bε bato ta Kulikoro ni Gao cε, sisikuru bε bɔ Bamako fo kayes.

  2. Sirakoro taama

    Ne sera Sirakoro ntεnεn don, uti kalo tile mugan ni segin san ba fila ni wɔrɔ Mobili donna dugu kɔnɔ ka bεn ni fitiri ye, o y’a sɔrɔ san nana. An taara dugutigi ka so. A y’an bisimila koɲuman.

    An sira, dugu jεlen an sɔrɔla ka taa dugu maabaw caman fo (Perefe dankan, Mεri, Dɔgɔtɔrɔ kuntigi, Muso kuntigi, Alimami, Pasitεri, cεmisεn kuntigi, ani n ka karamɔgɔ). Wula fε, dugutigi ni a ka kɔnseyew y’an bisimila a ka so. An y’an nali kun fɔ u ye. A diyara u ye kosεbε, u ko an k’an bisimila. O kɔfε ne ni n ka karamɔgɔ ye kalan daminε. Aa! Sisan kɔni, ne ye bamanankan caman faamu.

    Alamisa don, uti kalo tile bisaba ni kelen, sɔgɔma dizεri waati, dugu musow bεε ni jenbe nana ka donkε n jatigiya la, ka ne fo. An ye donkε kosεbε. Jɔn ko allah, Sirakoro ka di!!!

    Fox Emily

DIALOG dɔgɔkun kelen taama

A

N nana n sara i la, n bεna taa dɔgɔkun kelen taama na sini.

B

Eh! Sini ? Ayiwa, ka taa ka segin nɔgɔya.

A

A miina, ka ɲɔgɔn ye nɔgɔya, ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ.

B

k’an b’u fo! Ka segin n’i ɲuman ye. I k’an sama. I delila ka se yen wa?

A

Ayi, n ma se yen fɔlɔ. Ni alah sɔnna, n bεna aw sama.

VOCABULARY BOLIMAFεNW

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION:

taama travelling/journey/trip dugutaa travelling/journey/trip bolifεnw means of transportation taamaden traveller mobili vehicle bato boat so horse kurun dugout canoe fali donkey moto motorbike nεgεso bicycle/bike sisikurun train ɲɔgɔmε camel awiyɔn airplane ka taama to travel ka taa dugula to travel. ka jigin to get down. ka taa x kunbεn to go meet x. ka biye ta to take a ticket ka pase sara to pay the trip fees ka fa to be crowded ka x sama to give a trip gift. ka taa x bila sira to accompany x ka taa bɔx ye/la to pay visit to x. x fara/x falen don x is full

x tiɲεna x broke down. x tiɲεnen don x is broken down.

BISIMILA WELCOMIMG

idanse/ i ni sε welcome i (aw) bisimila welcome. saha thanks. kodi/kori i ɲuman nana ? did you have a nice trip ? ka na aw ɲuman sɔrɔ I had a nice trip i ni fama It was a long time. a kεra fama ye It was a long time n nana n sara i la I came to inform you about my trip.

SAMAW: GIFTS

n sama bε min? where is my gift? i sama filε here is your gift. i sama bε kɔ I will bring it later. DUWAWUW/DUGAW: BLESSINGS

ka taa ka segin nɔgɔya May going and returning be easy ka ɲɔngɔn ye nɔgɔya May seeing each other be easy ɲuman taa ɲuman segin good trip, good return ka hεrε k’i ɲε May peace be front of you }have a good trip. ka sira diya May the trip/road be good } ka segin n’i ɲuman ye May you return well ka se n’i ɲuman ye May arrive well ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ May peace come after me.

GRAMMAR

  • THE HABIT OF DOING SOMETHING: ka deli ka

This structure is used in the present to induicate that the subject has “the habit of doing something” or is used to do something. ka deli ka is follwed by the infinitive.

THE PRESENT TENSE

            Affirmative form:                                      Negative form:
S + bε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)      S + tε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)
A bε deli ka na n ka so.                          A tε deli ka taa a sen na baarakε yɔrɔ la.
He is used to come to my house.                   He is not used to going to the office on foot.
               Interrogative form:
S + bε/tε deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif) ?

THE PAST TENSE

“ka deli ka” is used in the past tense to indicate that the subject has experience of doing something. It denotes that the subject has done something already or at least once.
                  Affirmative form:                                      Negative form:
S + delila ka + V (transitif/intransitif)               S + ma + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)
N delila ka taa Gao bato la.                      A ma deli ka don awiyɔn kɔnɔ.
I’ve been to Gao by boat                          He has never been in a plane.
               Interrogative form:
S + delila ka + V (transitif/intransitif)?
                                        THE IMPERFECT TENSE:
                  Affirmative form:                                      Negative form:
S + tun bε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)        S + tun tε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)
A tun bε deli ka taa sinema na weekend o weekend                N tun tε deli ka dumuni san sirada la.
                              Interrogative form:
               S + bε/tε deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif) ?
I tun bε deli ka mun kε weekend o weekend sani i ka na Mali la?

EXERCISES

  • Answer to the following questions:

    1. I taara min site-visit la?

    2. I taara don jumεn? I seginna don jumεn?

    3. I taara cogodi?

    4. I taara bolifεn jumεn na?

    5. A tun falen don wa?

    6. I ni jɔn taara ɲɔgɔn fε?

    7. I ye tile joli kε yen?

    8. Ka bɔ Bamako ka taa i ka dugu la, i ye joli sara?

    9. I ye mun kε tile fɔlɔ?

    10. I ka dugu bε Mali fan jumεn fε?

    11. I ka dugu bε cogodi?

    12. A taama kεra cogodi? I ka taama ɲεfɔ an ye.

    13. I delila ka nin taama ɲɔgɔn kε wa?

  • Readjust the following situations: 1- You are coming from a trip.

    A: I danse                                       B:_______________________
    A: taayɔrɔ mɔgɔw ka kεnε?                        B:_______________________
    A: kor’i ɲuman nana?                             B:_______________________
    A: Sira diyara wa?                               B:_______________________
    A: N sama bε min?                                B:_______________________
    2-    I am going to travel, make some blessings for me.
    A: N nana sara i la, n bεna taa dugu la          B:_______________________
    A: _________________                             B:_______________________
    A: _________________                             B:_______________________
    A: k’a hεrε fɔ n kɔ                              B:_______________________
  • Make as in the following example. e.g.: N bε to ka wuli joona N bε deli ka wuli joona. A bε to ka n dεmε n ka baara la. _ An bε to ka ɲɔgɔn sɔrɔ yen. A tε to ka n fo. _

  • Make as in the following example. e.g.: A binna moto la. A delila ka bin moto la. An taamana ɲɔgɔn fε _ An ma taa jamana wεrε la _ A ye nin mobili ɲɔgɔn dilan. _ N ma dɔlɔ min fɔlɔ. _

TDA * Identify five cooking tools with your mom/sister. * Identify five meals cooked by your mom/sister at home.

DUMUNIW

TALKING ABOUT MEALS

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Cite, at least, five Malian meals without your notes.

    2. Explain, at least, one recipe to someone using your notes.

    3. Enumerate four behaviors when eating in Mali and compare them to the American ones.

Nin muso in bεka mun tobi? Mun ni mun bε gabugu kɔnɔ?

  • Cultural Notes: .It’s important to invite people to eat (feel free to say yes or no). .Avoid smelling food. .Always use your right hand to eat. .Generally people eat together in the same bowl but men and women eat separately. .Cooking is a women’s role.

TEXT

Dumuniw ani dumunikεyɔrɔ ladaw.

Mali ka bon, a siyaw fana ka ca. O n’a ta o ta, siyaw ka dumuniw n’u ka dumuniyɔrɔ ladaw man jan ɲɔgɔn na kosεbε. Mali siyaw caman bε to, basi, dεgε, mɔni, seri, samε ani malokini dun. U bεε bε dumuni kε siɲε saba tile kɔnɔ: daraka, tilelafana ani surafana. Musow ni cεw tε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε yɔrɔ caman na Mali la. Cεw wali musow bε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε minεn kelen kɔnɔ. Danfara dɔw bε siyaw ni ɲɔgɔn cε. Bamananw bε seri sukarontan walima tosira kε daraka ye. Bamananw fana ka surafana n’u ka tilelafana caman ye to ye. Malokini bε tobi nisɔndiya donw dɔrɔn. Kɔrɔbɔrɔw bε furufuru kε daraka ye. U caman ka tilelafana ni surafana ye malokini ye. Basi ka di marakaw ye kɔsɔbε. Siyaw dɔw bε barika da dumuni kɔfε nka dɔw t’a da. Dumuniyɔrɔ ye kalansoba ye Mali la.

Nin muso in bεka mun tobi? O dumuni in tobicogo ɲεfɔ.

Tamatina dilancogo

  • Dilannifεw

    1. tamati mɔnenba

    2. tigatulu

    3. jabakεnε

    4. kɔgɔ

    5. ji

  • Dilanniminεw

    1. barama/fugantasa

    2. furunε

    3. finfin

    4. kutu

    5. muru

  • Dilancogo

    1. Finfin kε furunε kɔnɔ, tasuma kε finfin na. A fifa.

    2. Ni tasuma kamina, barama wala kasilɔri sigi tasuma kan. Ji dɔ k’a kɔnɔ.

    3. I tεgε ko k’a jε. Tamati ni jaba ko k’u jε.

    4. Tamati kε ji kalaman na. U kelen kelen ta, u fara b’u la.

    5. U bila tasa jεlen dɔ kɔnɔ. U nɔɔni.

    6. Barama sigi tasuma kan tuguni. Tulu hakε min bε bεn i ka tamati ma, o kε barama kɔnɔ.

    7. Tulu mana kalaya, tamati dɔɔni dɔɔni kε tulu la. To ka kutu kε k’a lamaga.

    8. Jaba tigε-tigε. A kε tamati na kan.

    9. kɔgɔ kε tamati na la, dɔɔni dɔɔni. To k’a nεnε.

Duncogo n’a lamaracogo

  • Nin tamatina in bε se ka kε sogo jeninen, jεgε jirannen, woso, wala kɔmitεri balabalalen kan, k’u dun. Waa, a ka di kɔsεbε.

  • A lamaracogo man gεlεn. I b’a kε buteli dɔ kɔnɔ ka tulu dɔɔni k’a kan k’a lasago yɔrɔ sumannen na.

  • Tamatina kεfεnw ye jumεnw ye?

  • Kεfεnw wεrεw bε se ka don a dilanni na wa?

  • I bε se k’a lamara cogo wεrε jumεn na?

VOCABULARY

dumuni food balo food. daraka breakfast tilelafana lunch. surafana dinner nafεn condiment. na sauce kεfεnw ingredients barama pot galama ladle. filen calabash muru knife. shilan food mill/reel furunε stove finfin charcoal fugan tasa aluminum bowl kini/malokini cooked rice basi cous-cous. dεgε ceam made of cereale mɔni porridge. to to (malian food) seri porridge. zamε cokked rice with condiments mixed furufuru fritter/doughnut tosira left over to basisira left over cous-cous minan utensil kolon mortar kolon-kala pestle kurun stool. kuyεri/kutu spoon tasa bowl. tobili cooking ɲɔ millet malo rice fini fonio. kaba maize yiriden mɔlen ripe fruit jaba onion tamati tomato. namasa banana lemuruba orange. lemurukumu lemon tiga peanut. foronto pepper layi garlay tulu oil x mugu the powder of x. tigadεgε peanut butter dabilenni hibiscus. kɔkɔ/kɔgɔ salt sogo/soko meat. siya ethnic group lada costum. x sukarotan x without sugar ka barika da/ ta to thank. o n’a ta o ta despite ka x susu to pound x. ka x ko k’a jε to wash properly ka x wɔrɔ to peel ka x kisε/kolo bɔ to take out seed ka x tigε tigε slice ka x suma to measure ka x daji to soak ka x shi to grind/crush ka x tobi to cook ka x kε minε kɔnɔ to put x in ka x mara to keep ka x lasagon to keep ka x jε to clean ka x nɔɔni to mix ka x tigε to cut x. ka x kε y la/na to put x in y ka x wele y la to call x for y ka x datugu to cover x ka x dayεlε to open x.

HERE ARE OTHER WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS WHICH CAN HELP YOU TO TALK MORE EASILY ABOUT MEALS.

a barika thank you(after a meal) a barika Ala ye you are welcome. i ni gwa thank you i ni daba thank you. k’a suma i la you are welcome k’a suma i kɔnɔ you are welcome. na dumuni na come and eat n’an ka dumunikε come and eat. dumuni mɔnna the meal is ready dumuni sigira the meal is ready. n faara I’m full n falen don I’m full. n faara teu-teu I’m completely full n ye dumunikε sisan I have just eaten. k’i ni hεrε bεn good appetite nabaa/nabaga newcomer mun b’i bolo? what do you have? mun ni mun bε yan? what do you have here? a kɔkɔ cayara dɔɔni there is too much salt kɔkɔ t’a la there is no salt in it. kan’a caya kosεbε don’t give too much dɔɔni far’a kan add a little bit.

DIALOG

Umaru

I ni sɔgɔma!

Amadu

Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε!

Umaru

Foyi ma kε! N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲεnajεba ye.

Amadu

A diyara wa?

Umaru

Kojugu! Dumuni ma kε foyi ye! An y’an kɔnɔ fa ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε.

Amadu

Ala ka kε furu ye!

Umaru

Amiina!

GRAMMAR THE USE OF kε

Kε has many meanings but in these strucures it means: to be done; to be made; to occur or happen. Below are the structures and some examples.
  • THE PRESENT TENSE:

    Affirmative form:                                         Negative form:
    Suj + bε kε + Compl + ye                                  Suj + tε kε + Compl + ye
    Mɔni bε kε daraka ye sɔgɔma o sɔgɔma.                     To tε kε tilelafana ye an ka so.
    Mɔni is made for breakfast every morning                  To is not made for lunch at our place
  • THE PAST TENSE:

    Affirmative form:                                         Negative form:
    Suj + kεra + Compl + ye                                   Suj + ma kε + Compl + ye
    A kεra baara ye!                                          A ma kε foyi ye!  Foyi ma kε!
    A kεra dɔgɔtɔrɔ ye.                                       Aw ma kε wɔlɔntεriw ye fɔlɔ.
                        Interrogative Form:
    Mun kεra?                                 A kεra di?
  • THE FUTURE TENSE:

    Affirmative form:                                         Negative form:
    Suj + bεna kε + Compl + ye                                Suj + tεna kε + Compl + ye
    Aw bεna kε wɔlɔntεriw ye sɔɔni.                           A tεna kε foyi ye.

EXERCISES

  • Translate the following sentences into bambara. 1- Sauce is made of peanut butter. 2- The trainee becomes volunteer after nine weeks. 3- One should not chat in class. 4- One should not dance in the mosque. 5- John will be a good volunteer. _ 6- What happened to you yesterday? 7- What will happen if you don’t go? _

  • Explain the recipe of a meal you like to cook.

  • Exchange an American recipe you know for a Malian one with a friend.

With your host mother/sister/neighbour, get informed about: • The type of meals she cooks • The recipe of this meals • The typical meals of her ethnic group.

ƝANAJƐW

TALKING ABOUT FEASTS AND LEISURE

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Cite three religious and three traditional feasts in Mali.

    2. Name, at least, three leisure time activities in your community and describe one of them.

  • Answer these questions.

    1. Nin ye mun ɲεnajε ye ?

    2. Dugumɔgɔw y’aw bisimila ka ɲε aw na don wa ?

    3. Aw nisɔndiyara kɔsεbε wa ?

DIALOG

1.

Umaru

An ni sɔgɔma!

Amadu

Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε!

Umaru

Tiɲε don. N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲanajεba ye.

Amadu

A diyara wa?

Umaru

Kojugu. Jamaba de tun bε yen. An ye dumunikε ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε.

Amadu

Fɔlifεn jumεn tun bε yen?

Umaru

An ye balani dɔn fo k’an sen kari.

2.

Jelikε

An ni su!

Den-fa

Nba , aw ni su!

Jelikε

Hεrε tilenna wa?

Den-fa

Hεrε dɔrɔn.

Jelikε

Mɔgɔ nakun ka fisa i yεrε ye. N’i ye n wulilen ye ka se yan, juguman tε. A kun ye furu sira ye. Keyitalakaw ye woro tan ni fura siri, k’u ɲε bɔra aw denmuso Fanta fε. U dun t’a ŋaniya ni foyi ye n’u denkε Bakari furumuso tε. Woro tan filε n’a bε bεn aw ma, o bε diy’an ye kɔsεbε.

Den-fa

An bε woro minε fɔlɔ. Den bε yan, den baw bε yan. N’an y’olu ɲininka, olu mana jaabi min di, an n’o fɔ aw ye. Nin diyar’an ye, a bεnn’an ma. Hakεto b’o kan.

Jelikε

Aw Keyita! Ala k’a ɲεn k’a d’an ma. N bε sira ɲinin.

Den-fa

Kuyate! Sira dir’i ma. K’an b’u fo!

Jelikε

U n’a mεn! Ka su hεrε d’an ma!

VOCABULARY

FƆLIFƐNW DƆW SOME INSTRUMENTS

jenbe drum balani xylophone ntamani hand-held drum gitari guitare ŋɔni an indigenous guitare kora kora file a flute

ƝƐNAJƐ DƆW SOME FEASTS

denkundi baptism furusiri/kɔɲɔ marriage furasi circoncision party seliba Tabaski selideni/seliɲinin Ramadan san yεlεma seli new year’s day yεrεma hɔrɔnya seli Independence day dɔn dance marasibɔ to play cards farikolo ɲεnajε sports

ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY

gεrεn club jama crowd jeli griot woro kola nut bolomafara contribution ka.x sɔn to give a present ka tεgεrεfɔ to applaud morikε marabout

GRAMMAR THE PASSIVE VOICE:

The passive voice is formed by adding ra (na, la) to the infinitve form without ka (or bε of course). You can then notice that we get past form of the verb.

Affirmative form:

Suj (passif)+ Vra/na/la + Compl (suj act) +(fε/bolo)

Woro dira denfa ma jelikε fε.

Woro minεna denfa fε.

Dumuni sigira Fanta fε

The meal has been set by Fanta

Te wulila

Tea has been boiled

Mobili kora Musa fε

Negative form:

Suj (passif)+ ma +Verb + Compl (suj act) +(fε/bolo)

Ayi furu ma siri fɔlɔ.

Ayi wεri ma ci ne bolo.

Mobili ma ko Musa fε

EXERCISES

  • Make as in the following example. e.g.: Bakari ye wari di Musa ma -------------→ Wari dira Musa ma Bakari fε.

    1. Fanta ye ji kalaya.

    2. Kɔɲɔnmuso ye fini kuraw don.

    3. Jelikε ye gitari fɔ furusiri yɔrɔ la. __

    4. An ye dɔn dabila su fε _

    5. U ye balani fɔ kɔsεbε __

    6. Jelikε ye wari caman sɔrɔ __

  • Make as in the following example. e.g.: Dumuni sigira ka ban -------------→ Dumuni ma sigi fɔlɔ.

    1. Furusiri kεra misiri la. __

    2. An kunbεna ka ɲε u fε. __

    3. Mobili tiɲεna a bolo. _

    4. Kini dunna ka ban. _

MƆGƆ WELELI

ACCEPT OR DECLINE AN INVITATION

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

Use, at least, three expressions to invite someone in a real situation.

Use appropriately three expressions to accept or decline an invitation.

DIALOG

1. Mamu:: Fanta! i ni fama sa! Fanta:: An bεε ni fama. Mamu:: I tununna dε! Fanta:: O kεra! N tun taara dugu la. Mamu:: I nani diyara n ye. Tiɲε don, n dɔgɔmuso ka furusiri bε kε sibiri don. N’i b’a masɔrɔ, n b’a fε i ka na o la. An bε ɲanajεba kε wula fε. Fanta:: Basi tε, ni Ala sɔnna i bεna n ye.

2. Umaru:: I ni wula, Susan! Susan:: Nse! Umaru, hεrε tilenna?

Umaru

N bε Ala tanu! A bε diy’an ye n’i bε se ka n’an ka furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la bi su in na.

Susan

Bi su in na! Haa! N tεn’a masɔrɔ. N bolo degunnen don barisa ɲɔgɔnye kεrεnkεrεnnen dɔ bε n bolo. A kεra baara ye. Kana jigin n na. Ala ka siɲε wεrε jir’an na.

Umaru

N tεna jigin i la. Ala ka dugawu minε!

Susan

Amiina!

VOCABULARY

EXPRESSIONS TO INVITE SOMEONE

n ba ɲin’i fε

I would like you to

n jigi b’i kan

I count on you.

o bε diya n ye

It will please me

n b’i deli

Please (I am begging you).

EXPRESSIONS TO ACCEPT AN INVITATION

INVITATION

o diyara n ye

It’s my pleasure(pleased me).

i bε n ɲεsigi

Organize a meal for me (set something for me).

Ala k’an to ɲɔgɔn ye

May we count on each other.

ni Ala sɔnna, i bε n ye

If god pleases, you will see me.

EXPRESSIONS TO DECLINE AN INVITATION

n t’a masɔrɔ

I won’t have time

n bolo degunnen don

I am busy.

a kεra baara ye

What a pity

kana jigi n na

Don’t hold it against me.

GRAMMAR THE EMPHATIC SA

  1. SA

Sa is used in two situations: i- As an emphatic: It means very.

I ni fama sa! It has been a very long time! Nin cε ka jugun sa! This man is so mean!

ii- It can mean, please.

I sigi sa! Please sit down! Dumunikε sa! Eat, please!

  1. THE EXPRESSIONS OF DESIRE AND OBLIGATION

The expressions of desire and obligation require the use of the infinitive.
  • k’a fε ka to want N b’a fε aw ka tilen n ka so. I want you to spend the day at my house.

  • K’a ɲini x fε to ask someone to.

N y’ a ɲini Mamadu n’a muso fε u ka na dumuni kε. I asked Mamadou and his wife to come and eat.

  • A ka di x ye to please to. A ka di n ye i ka n dεmε tobili la. I want you to help me to cook.

  • Wajibi don It’s obligatory.

Wajibi don n ka taa nin dekundi yɔrɔ la. I have to go to this baptism.

EXERCISES

  • Complete this dialog. Accept the invitation.

    A

    I ni sɔgɔma.

    B
    A

    I ni fama.

    B
    A

    I bε taa min?

    B
    A

    Sini sufε, n bε te wuli n ka so. I bε se ka na wa? B

    A

    O diyara n ye.

    B
  • Complete this dialog. Decline the invitation.

    A

    N terimuso, i tununna dε.

    B
    A

    N ba fε i ka taa bɔ n ye sini su fε, an bε te min ka barokε.

    B
    A

    N b’i deli sa !

    B
    A

    I b’a masɔrɔ don jumεn.

    B
    A

    Ayiwa, k’an b’u fo.

    B
    • Case study: Susan is invited by her brother to a wedding party. Her brother’s cousin Invites her to dance repeatedly. A bit later she decides to go back home. The following day, she learns her brother and his cousin had a fight. since then, she feels uncomfortable at home.

You have a very nice malian friend. He invites you at his house. Tell him you are busy. Find out 2 or 3 excuses to decline the invitation.

Invite a village friend or a host family member to a technical activity of your sector in the village and tell him about the goals of that activity.

DƐMƐ ƝININ

ASKING FOR HELP

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Ask for or decline a proposal of help without your notes in a given situation.

Nin cε in bε mun na kεnεma? A ka baara ye mun ye?

DIALOG

Sarah

Ee! Mun kεra? N ka nεgεso bila! I bε taalen ni n ka nεgεso ye min? A ye son bεn! A' ye n dεmε!

Musa

Jɔn kulekan bε yan? Mun y’i sɔrɔ? Jɔn donna i kan?

Sarah

A’ ye na! A’ ye bɔ! Son taara ni n ka nεgεso ye. N b’aw deli. A’y’a kunbεn! A’ye ɲε n ma!

Musa

I hakili sigi. A tε se ka taa yɔrɔ jan.

Passant

Kule dabila n balimamuso. U ye i ka son minε. A ni nεgεso b’u bolo ka na.

Sarah

O ye Ala tanu ye. Aw ni ce! Aw ni baraji! Hakεto! Musa, n hakili la, n ka kan ka sokɔlɔsila dɔ ɲinin min bεna n ka dukɔnɔna kɔlɔsi, k’a janto da la.

Musa

O ka nɔgɔn. An bεna mɔgɔ sεbε ɲinin i ye. Hali ni mɔgɔ wεrε fɔra i kɔ, ale na sɔrɔ yan.

VOCABULARY

EXPRESSIONS USED TO ASK FOR HELP:

wooyi! wooyi! wooyi n ba den! interjection used to ask for help a’ye na! come over here a’ye bɔ! come out ɲε n ma! Please/help me n dεmε! help me a/u bεna bin n kan ! she/he (they are) is agressing me. a/u bε n kɔ! she/he (they are) is purchasing me. i bε se ka n dεmε wa?/a’ye n dεmε! can you help me? EXPRESSIONS USED TO REFUSE HELP:

i lafiɲε (sa)! get a rest n ma jigin i la. I excuse you a ka ɲi ten. its good enough EXPRESSIONS USED IN A CASE OF AGRESSION:

n bila!/ n bolo bila! leave me alone a ye son bεn! thief ! thief ! sabali be tolerant (easy) hinε n na ! have pity on me n b’i deli ! please n to ala ye (kama/kɔsɔn) for god’s sake, leave me. EXPRESSIONS USED IN A CASE OF INDESIRED ATTENTION:

bɔ n kun na! leave me alone n to yen! leave me alone i da bɔ n na! leave me alone fara n na! leave me alone i ɲε bɔ n na! why do you stare at me? i bε n lajε munna? why do you stare at me? i bε n foto fε wa? Do you want my picture? i ma n ɲɔgɔn ye wa? haven’t you seen anyone like me? mun kεra?/a kεra di ?/mun don? what’s the matter? EXPRESSIONS EXPRESSION S USED TO ADDRESS A GUARDIAN/A HOUSEWORKER:

k’i janto x la/na to pay attention to x. ka x kɔlɔsi to take care of/to look after x. ka x bila ka don to let x get in ka x gεn to chase x. ka x makɔnɔ to wait for x. ka fɔ x kɔ to miss. ka x kalifa to give/to look after ka gεrεn x la to get close to x.

EXERCISES

  • Translate the following sentences and phrases into Bambara.

    1. Come early tomorrow. Clean up the courtyard.

    2. Don’t leave the door open. Lock it.

    3. Watch out the wall behind.

    4. Don’t let anyone enter the house.

    5. Chase animals and water the trees.

    6. If my friend comes while I am not here, tell him/her to wait for me.

  • With your parents, identify at least two activities according to the seasons and the genre NOTE: Use the board below:

                       1- Fonεnε              2- Tilema                3- Taratile            4- Samiya
    1- Cεw
                       ____________________   ____________________     ____________________   ____________________
         bε
                       ____________________   ____________________     ____________________   ____________________
                       ____________________   ____________________     ____________________   ____________________
    2- Musow
                       ____________________   ____________________     ____________________   ____________________
         bε

WAATIW LAHALAW

TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Cite three characteristics of the main seasons in Mali.

    2. Cite, at least, two activities related to the seasons, according to gender.

DIALOG

John

Amadu, i ni sɔgɔma.

Amadu

Nba, hεrε sira John?

John

Hεrε dɔrɔn. N bε taa bɔ n terikε ka foro la ka na.

Amadu

Ee! I t’i jɔ dɔɔni. E ɲε tε sanfinnenba la?

John

E ko nin san bε na sisan?

Amadu

Funteni b’a kɔrɔ cogo min na, ne miiri la a bε na.

John

Funteni ye sanji tamasere ye aw fε yan wa?

Amadu

ɔwɔ, nka o dɔrɔn tε dε! San tamasere dɔ wεrεw ye kabanɔgɔ, tile bɔ cogo ani fiɲε ci cogo ye. Hali kɔnɔ dɔw bε san kibaruya fɔ an sεnεkεlaw ye.

John

Kabako! Ni n bε taa, n bεna n ka sanji minεfini ta. I ni ce. Amadu, n mana segin, an bε se ka barokε Mali waatiw ni Ameriki taw kan wa?

Amadu

O bε diya n ye kosɔbε. Ola n yεrε bεna faamuya dɔ sɔrɔ Ameriki kan. K’an bεn sɔɔni.

John

K’an bεn! Ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ.

Amadu

Amina! K’i ɲuman segin!

VOCABULARY

tilema

dry season

taratile

hot and dry season

samiya

rainy season

fonεnε

cold season

funteni waati

hot season

nεnε tuman

cold season

gɔngɔn

the dust

kabakolo

sky

sanji

rain

san pεrεn

thunder balt

san kulu

thunder

san mεgεru

lightning

san bεlεni

the hail

cɔcɔ

heavy rain

sanfin

the storm

fiɲε

the wind

funteni

the heat

kawula

hot and humid season

bɔgɔ

mud

kabanɔgɔ

cloud

tubabu kalo

gregorian calendar

farafin kalo

lunar month

zanwuye (kalo)

January

Feburuye

February

marisi

March

Awirili

April

May

Zuwεn

June

Zuluye

July

uti

August

Sεbutanburu

September

ɔkutɔburu

October

Nowanburu

November

desanburu

December

dibi donnen don

it is dark

sanba nana

It rained a lot

nεnε bε kε/bɔ sɔɔni

it will be cold soon

funteni bε/kε bɔ sɔɔni

it will be hot soon

EXERCISES

  • Translate the following sentences:

    1. It rained a lot last night.

    2. A bad wind blew before the rain.

    3. Kids hid themselves behind the big tree.

    4. The big Moussa fell into the mud

    5. His clothes are very dirty now

  • Talk with your parents in the village in order to get information on their different activities during the different seasons.

  • Interview some resource persons in your training site to identify:

  • The activities according to the seasons and the genre.

Use the board below: Baaraw/hajuw Sankɔnɔ kalow waati (Write the number corresponding to the activities/events) Zanwuye(kalo) fonεnε waati 1 m/w Feburuye(kalo) Marisi(kalo) Awirili(kalo) Mε(kalo) Zuwεn(kalo) Zuluye(kalo) Uti(kalo) Sεbutanburu(kalo) ɔkutɔburu(kalo) Nowanburu(kalo) Desanburu(kalo)
  • nakɔ baara 1 •jiriden tɔmɔ 8

  • jago misεn 2 •suma tigε 9

  • tungalataa/dugubakɔnɔtaali 3 •seginkɔtuma 10

  • forobabana 4 •furusiriw tuma/kɔɲɔw 11

  • so dila/jo 5 •suma dεsε 12

  • biriki dila 6 •wari sɔrɔ tuma 13

  • foro baaraw 7 •seliw 14

  • man (m)

  • woman (w)

SEKO NI DƆNKOW

TALKING ABOUT ONE’S SKILLS

Communicative Task:

TEXT

Sekow ni bololabaaraw

Bololabaarakεlaw jɔyɔrɔ ka bon kɔsɔbε jamana in kɔnɔ. Kabini lawale la, an ka minεnw fanba bεε bε dilan bololabaarakεlaw de fε. Dugu si tε taa u kɔ. Ulu de b’an mago caman ɲε. I bε garankεw, gesedalaw, numuw, sanu ni warijε fagalaw, dagadilannaw, kɔlɔnsennaw, sojɔlaw, jiridεsεlaw, kundigilaw, mekanisiɲεw, menizenw sɔrɔ an ka dugu caman kɔnɔ. Nin seko ni dɔnko mɔgɔw fana tε taa sεnεkεlaw, nakɔbaaralaw, bagangεnnaw, mɔnikεlaw, dosow ni jeliw kɔ.

DIALOG

Amadu

N terikε John, e yεrε bε mun baarakε an ka dugu in kɔnɔ?

John

ɲinikali ɲuman! Ne ye yiriforow ni kungoyiri nafamaw lakanabaa wɔlɔntεri ye. N bε baarakε sεnεkεlaw ni nakɔtigiw fε. N bε ladilikan di mɔgɔw ma yirituru ni yiriw ladoncogo ɲuman kan. N bε dugu mɔgɔw dεmε yirishεnw sɔrɔ cogo n’u turu cogo la ani nɔgɔ ni nɔgɔdingεw dilanni fana la. N bε taa nakɔw ni forow kɔnɔ tuma ni tuma ka kuma nin fεnw kan.

Amadu

Ayiwa! Ne hakili la, n y’i ka baara faamu sisan. Ala k’i dεmε.

VOCABULARY PROFESSIONS/WORKERS

bololabaarakεla

hand worker/artisan

garankε

cobbler/shoemaker

numu

blacksmith

gesedala

weaver

baganmarala

cattle breeder

masɔn

builder/mason

minize

joiner/carpenter

mɔnnikεla

fisherman

sεnεkεla/cikεla

farmer

yiriturubaara

plantation/tree planting

mekanisiɲε

mechanic

baarakεden

servant/domestic

baaraɲini

laborer

nakɔbaarala

gardener

nakɔbaara

gardening

kεnεya ni saniya baara

health educator

ji ni saniya baara

water sanitary work

kɔlɔnsenna

well digger

jagokεla

merchant

jagomisεn layiriwali baarakεla

"SED" agent

SOME EXPRESSIONS

seko ni dɔnko

aptitude

x dilala

reparman

x tε fosi dɔn

x knows nothing

x tε se foyi la

x can’t do anything

x ye fugari ye

x is good for nothing

x baara nɔ ka ɲi

x does a good job

x bε se baara ɲuman na

x does a good job

ka x kε ka ɲε

to do x well

ka dεsε x la

not to be able to x

k’i kamana gan

to cause trouble/to puzzle

k’i kɔnɔna fili

to cause trouble/to puzzle

ka se ka

can/ to be able to

ka se x la

to be able to do x

ka x ɲεfɔ

to explain

Te wulicogo

  • Wulifεnw

    • te

    • sukaro

    • nanaye

    • ji

Teminεnw * barada * furunε * finfin * wεriw * pilato

Wulicogo N’i bε te wuli, i bε fɔlɔ ka:

  1. tasuma ɲaga, o kɔ i bε te kε barada kɔnɔ.

  2. I bε ji wεri ɲε naani ni tila k’a la.

  3. O kɔ i bε barada sigi tasuma kan. I b’a wuli miniti bisaba kɔnɔ.

  4. Tuma kelen kelen, i b’a jigin ka teji kε barada wεrε kɔnɔ.

  5. O kɔ, i bε sukaro k’a la. I bε sɔrɔ k’a suuru wεriw kɔnɔ walasa ka sukaro yelen teji la.

  6. O kɔ, i b’a nεnε ni sukaro y’a bɔ. I bε teji yεlεma barada kɔnɔ tuguni.

  7. I b’a kalaya dɔɔni.

  8. Mɔgɔ caman bε teji dɔ to wεri kelen kɔnɔ walasa ka musi dila n’o ye wεri tɔw kɔnɔ.

  9. I bε tila ka wεriw kɔ sananko.

  10. Te mana kalaya dɔɔni, i b’a tila wεriw ni ɲɔgɔn cε k’a di mɔgɔw ma.

  11. Segin bε kε ni kan fo siɲε saba.

  12. Siɲε fila tɔw la i bε se ka nanaye k’a la.

  13. Temugu ni ji hakε bε yεlεma mɔgɔw hakε kɔsɔn.

SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY

barada

tea pot

ka x kε y la/kɔnɔ

to put x into y

wεri

glass

ka x suuru

to pour x

pilato

plate

ka x fifa

to ventilate x

furunε

stove

ka x kalaya

to heat up

finfin/sharibon

charcoal

ka x sumaya

to cool

sukaro

sugar

ka x nεnε

to taste

te

tea

ka x wuli

to boil

nanaye

mint

ka x ɲaga

to make x alive

hakε

the quantity

ka x yεlεma

to put x in an other recipient

musi/kangaji

the froth

ka x sananko

to clean x

tuma kelen kelen

from time to time

x ɲε + nombre

the number of the content of x

ka x jigin

to take out of

ka x yelen

to dissolve x

ka x tila

to share x

GRAMMAR The action noun

Action Nouns are formed from verbs by adding the suffix li

e.g.: Bajɔw ni kɔbafiniw dilali t’a kɔnɔna fili. Ka _ dila dilali (to repare… ) ----------- (reparing …)

Verb + li  noun

da

weave

dali

weaving

dila

repare

dilali

reparing

taa

go

taali

going

fo

greet

foli

greeting

There are a number of exceptions to this rule which must be memorized. A few of the most common are:

kalan

study

kalan

studying

baara

work

baara

work

min

drink

min

drinking

baro

converse

baro

conversing

sεnε

grow, farm

sεnε

farming

  • The agentive noun: NOTE: Agentive nouns, that is, nouns that refer to the doers of actions, are formed in Bambara by compounding the object and the verb and adding the suffix la and it litteraly translates by the "action doer"

Noun + Verbe + la  Noun Vkε + la  Noun

e.g:

geseda

weave thread

gesedala

weaver

baarakε

do work

baarakεla

worker

sεnεkε

do farming

sεnεkεla

farmer

mɔnnikε

do fishing

mɔnnikεla

fisherman

EXERCISES

  • Translate into Bambara.

    1. We cannot make tea.

    2. Gardening is beneficial.

    3. I am going to work with my village women’s association.

    4. We must work well with our villagers.

    5. I am going to help merchants to improve their business.

    6. I will start with knowing my village labor, then I will start working.

    7. Some volunteers do good jobs.

    8. We are going to help with environment protection.

    9. Our job is not to give money to people, but we are going to help them with the country development works.

  • Complete the following chart according to the PCV’s profile.

PROGRAM PROFESSION JOB DESCRIPTION -A bε yirishεn foro labεn Environment (AG/NRM) -A bε yiri turu -A bε yiriw lakana - Small Enterprises Development (SED)

Education Ekɔli karamɔgɔ

Health Education

Water Resources Management (WRM)

  • Complete the following sentences according to the image

    1. Samba ye ye. A bε wolo baara ka ni dila. A bε _ tigε, k’a kala, k’a nɔrɔ.

    2. Kante bε nεgε baara ka _ ni _ ni jelekisε dila. A b’u kalaw dila ni _ ye. I ka nεgεmafεn o fεn mana tiɲε, a bε se k’o labεn.

    3. Bozo Mama ye ye. Mɔnnikεla dɔw ye sɔmɔnɔw ye. U bε mɔn ni _ ye. A mana jεgεw , a muso bε taa u feere sugu la. Tuma ni tuma, a bε tilen a ka kɔnɔ baji kan.

    4. Alu bε gese _ ni _ ye. A bε se fini cεɲiw dali la. Bajɔw ni kɔbafiniw __ t’a kɔnɔna fili.

    5. Musajan bε _ labεn i n’a fɔ: mobiliw, ani . Olu _ t’a kamana gan. A hakili sigilen don. A ka ka ɲi. A tε dεsε _ la.

  • Describe the work you do by starting it in a three month Action Plan.

  • Give the advantages and disadvantages of your work.

SIGIYƆRƆ KUNNAFONNIW

GETTING INFORMED ABOUT ONE’S AREA

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Ask appropriately, at least, three questions to get informed about your site.

    2. Interview, at least, two resource persons in order to list NGOs and development partners working in your commune.

DIALOG

Musa

Eh! John, i ni faama!

John

Musa, i ni waati. I bε di?

Musa

Alhamudulilayi! I bε dugu jumεn na sisan?

John

N sigilen don Jitumu mara la, Keleya kεrεfε.

Musa

Keleya lamini duguw ye dugu kɔrɔw ye.

John

Tiɲε don! Dugutigi ko: ale ka dugu in tutigε tuma mεnna kɔsεbε. Dugu in sigira ka kɔn Tubabu fanga ɲε.

Musa

Ha! O ye dugu kɔrɔ ye. Siya jumεnw bε yen?

John

Siya caman. Bamananw ka ca ni siya tɔw ye Jitumu mara kɔnɔ. Fulaw ni Maninkaw fana sigilen bε yen yen. Siginfεw bε sɔrɔ yen, i n’a fɔ Korokow, Marakaw, Kɔrɔbɔrɔw, Dongɔnɔw ani siya wεrεw.

Musa

O ye siya caman ye. I ye yen mɔgɔya kεcogo bεε faamu ka ban?

John

Dɔɔni dɔɔni. Nka yirikurun mεn o mεn ji la, a tε kε bama ye. N bε ka ladaw ni korɔw ɲεɲinin.

Musa

Ayiwa! O de ka ɲi. Ala k’i dεmε.

John

Amiina! K’an bεn!

VOCABULARY

LADAW NI KOKɔRɔW

ladaw

customs

kokɔrɔw

traditions

furu

marriage

tana

taboo

silamε furusiri

religious wedding

dasiri

totem

furu nafolo

dowry

sɔnni

sacrifice

kɔɲɔn

wedding

sɔnnikεyɔrɔ

place for sacrifice

kɔɲɔn so

nuptial chamber/honey moon

seli

feast

denkundi

baptism

seliba

Tabaski

bolokoli

circonscision/excision

selincini

Ramadan feast

saya/banni

death

sunkalo

fasting month

dinε

religion

silamε dinε

Islam

kerecεn dinε

Christianity

SIYAW

ETHNIC GROUPS

  • bamanan

  • maninka

  • maraka

  • fula

  • senufo

  • bɔbɔ

  • miniyanka

  • bozo

  • kadɔ

  • kasɔnka

  • kɔrɔbɔrɔ

  • burudamε

  • suraka.

You can meet all the ethnic groups every where in Mali. But there is a concentration of some ethnic groups in certain regions such as:

REGIONS ETHNIC GROUPS LAST NAME OCCUPATIONS OBSERVATION

                 Sarakollé/Maraka         Soumaré/Diawara/Doucouré/Silla/Konté       Trade/Agriculture         Sedentary
KAYES          Khassonké/Kasonkha       Sakho/Gassama/Sissoko/Kanté/Diakité        Animal rising/Fishing     Immigration
                 Malinké/Maninka          Diallo/Sakiliba/Keita/Camara/Konaté        Craft                     Semi-nomad
                 Peulh/Foulani            Konaré/Sissoko/Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé
                 Maure/Suraka             Sangaré/Bah/Ould
                 Bambara/Bamanan          Coulibaly/Diarra/Traoré/Koné/Mariko        Trade/Agriculture         Sedentary

KOULIKORO Malinké/Maninka Keita/Camara/Konaté/Konaré/Doumbia Animal rising/Fishing Immigration Somono/Bozo Diabenta/Dienta/Djiré/Karabenta Craft Semi-nomad Maure/Souraka Ould/ Senoufo Bamba/Coulibaly/Sanogo/Bagayogo Trade/Agriculture Sedentary

SIKASSO Minianka WonogoCoulibaly/Cissouma/Bengaly Animal rising Dembélé/Wattara Craft Peulh/foulani Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé/Sangaré/Bah Bambara/Bamanan Coulibaly/Diarra/Traoré/Koné/Mariko Trade/Agriculture Sedentary

SEGOU Peulh/Foulani Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé/Sangaré/Bah Animal rising/Fishing Nomad Bozo/Somono Diabenta/Dienta/Djiré/Karabenta Craft Semi-nomad Bobo/Bowa Kamata/Sinanta/Dembélé/Kwéné/Dakouo Dakono/Kamaté Peulh/foulani Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé/Sangaré/Bah Trade/Agriculture Sedentary

MOPTI Bozo Diabenta/Dienta/Djiré/Karabenta/Kamata Animal rising/Fishing Nomad Dogon Guindo/Tapily/DoloOuologuem/Angoiba Craft Semi-nomad Tembely/Timbiné Sonraï/Kɔrɔbɔrɔ Maïga/Touré/Cissé/Askofaré…. Trade/Agriculture Sedentary

TOMBUKTU Touareg/Arabe Ag /Ben /Ould Animal rising/Fishing Nomad Maure Craft Semi-nomad Sonraï/Kɔrɔbɔrɔ Maïga/Touré/Cissé/Askofaré…. Trade/Agriculture Sedentary

GAO Ag /Ben /Ould Animal rising/Fishing Nomad Touareg/Arabe Maure Craft Semi-nomad Sonraï/Kɔrɔbɔrɔ Maïga/Touré/Cissé/Askofaré…. Trade/Gardening Sedentary

KIDAL Touareg/Arabe Ag /Ben /Ould Animal rising/Fishing Nomad Maure Craft Semi-nomad

Joking cousin: Sarakollé and Sonraï Malinké and Sarakollé Bozo and Dogon Peulh and Dogon Coulibaly, Diarra and Traoré etc. Coulibaly and Traoré/Dembélé…

GRAMMAR Comparative construction

Comparative constructions can be formed in Bambara with the postpositional phrases according to the following patterns.
  1. Equality

    • X ni Y ye kelen ye Mali ladaw ni Ameriki ladaw ye kelen ye wa ? Are Malian and American customs the same?

    • X ni Y tε kelen ye Mali ladaw ni Ameriki ladaw tε kelen ye. Malian customs and American customs are not the same.

    • X ni Y ka kan Bamanankan ni julakan ka kan dɔɔni. Bamanan and Jula are a bit similar (the same).

    • X ni Y man kan Bamanan ladaw ni fula ladaw man kan. Bambara customs and fulani ones are not the same.

  2. Superiority

    • X ka + Adj + ni Y ye Maninkakan ka kɔrɔ ni bamanankan ye. The Malinke language is older than the Bambara language.

  3. Inferiority

    • X man + Adj + ni Y ye Fulakan man nɔgɔn ni Bamanankan ye. The Fulfulde language is not easier than Bambara language.

  4. Look alike/the same

    • X ni Y bɔlen don/bε/tε Amadu ni a denw bɔlen don Amadou and his children look alike.

    • X bɔlen don/tε Y fε Farafina kokɔrɔ dɔw bɔlen don Ameriki ta dɔw fε. Some African customs look like some American ones.

EXERCISES

  • Answer the following questions:

    1. Furusiri bε kε cogodi Mali la?

    2. Furu ladaw ye mun ye?

    3. Mun bε kε furusiri don Ameriki?

    4. Munna musow tε furu jɔɔna Ameriki?

    5. Munna muso caman furu dagalen tε Ameriki?

    6. Mun ye furusa caya Ameriki?

JAMA HAKILI JAKABƆ

LEADING A COMMUNITY MEETING

Communicative Task:

  • Objectives:

    1. Use, at least, three expressions to ask for the audience’s patience during a real meeting.

    2. Use three appropriate expressions to introduce or to end a meeting in your community.

    3. Ask two questions to get people’s opinions on subjects in a real situation.

DIALOG

John

A’ ni wula yankaw, an tilenna hεrε la, Ala k’an si hεrε la.

Jeliba

Nba! A ni wula, aw bisimila! A ye dɔ di.

John

Saha! An ma na baasi la, an ye Saniya baarakεlaw ye. An nana walasa an bε se ka hakilina falen falen dugu saniya cogo kan.

Jeliba

Dugutigi, ayiwa kuma tε! U ko, k’u nana k’an dεmε ka dugu saniya.

Dugutigi

Jeliba, a fɔ dunanw ye: k’u nali diyar’an ye. K’u bisimila!

John

Gεlεya jumεn bε yan saniyako la?

Amadu

Ne bε kuma ɲinin.

Jeliba

Kuma b’i bolo, Amadu.

Amadu

Ne hakili la, ɲaman ani jinɔgɔko gεlεya de b’an kan bi.

John

Kuma ɲεna! Aw hakili la fεrε jumεnw bε se ka sɔrɔ olu la? (makan caman….)

Jeliba

A ye hakεto, an ka ɲɔgɔn lamεn!

Bakari

Baasi tε, ne hakili la, ni bεε bε se ka taa ɲaman bɔn dugu kɔfε yɔrɔ kelen na, o bε fisaya. Ani fana, an k’an hakili to ji saniyali la.

John

Yankaw, anw hakili la, bεε ye famuya sɔrɔ tɔnsigi in kɔnɔ. Aw ni ce, aw ni baraji! Ala k’an bεn a ɲɔgɔn wεrε ma. Sisan an b’a fε ka sira ɲinin.

VOCABULARY

  • To welcome: aw bisimila! dɔ di/dɔ fɔ kuma b’i bolo aw nali diyara anw ye.

  • To ask for the speech:

ne bε kuma ɲinin jama fε kuma ka gεlεn n’i donna min gasi la, o ka yafa n ma anw ma na baasi la juguma tε Ala sago, aw sago

  • To approve/to agree with someone: hatε! naamu! tiɲε! a’ ma kuma mεn! a’ ma kɔrɔfɔ mεn!

  • To remind people to be quiet: aw ye hakεto! aw ye sabali! aw ye ɲɔgɔn lamεn! Ala k’an son sabali la! n bε yafa ɲinin jama fε.

  • To take a leave: n b’a fε ka sira ɲinin.

  • To think the audience: aw ni ce! aw ni baraji! Ala k’aw sara! Ala k’an to ɲɔgɔn ye! Ala k’an kafolen to! Ala k’an ɲε k’a d’anw ma! Ala k’an bεn a ɲɔgɔn wεrε ma.

GRAMMAR

  • The demonstrative adjective nin

The demonstrative nin can occur both before and after the noun it modifies: e.g: nin cε… this man… cε nin… this man…
  • When following the noun, nin can always have the reduced form: e.g: nin cε in… this man… cε in… this man…

  • The relative pronoun min NOTE: Bambara has only one relative pronoun min which corresponds to who, which, that, whose in English.

    1. In subject position (Relative clause) e.g: Jon ye fini san? Who bought the cloth? Cε min taara. The man who left. Cε min taara, o ye fini san. The man who left, (he) bought the cloth.

              Cε min nana surafana dun, o ye n terikε ye.
              The man who came to dinner, that one is my friend.
              The man who came to dinner is my friend.
      NOTE: In the main sentence, the demonstrative pronoun o is used to refer back to the noun followed by the
      relative clause marker min.
    2. In object position (Relative clause) e.g: N bε cε min fo … The man whom I greet …

    3. In adverbial phrases NOTE: Adverbial phrases such as those of place, time, and manner can contain relative clauses, equivalent to sentences such as the following:

e.g: I tun bε yɔrɔ min, ne tun bε yen. I was at the place that you were/I was where you were. I tun bε yen tuma min, ne tun bε yen o tuma. I was there when you were there. I y’a kε cogo min, n y’a kε ten. I did it in the way that you did it.

EXERCISES

  • Look for the meaning of this proverb: “I dege mɔnni na, o ka fisa ni don go don jεgε deli ye.”

Grammatical Notes: KƆBILAW SUFFIX

NSANA PROVERB

Boloŋɔnnin kelen tε se ka bεlε ta!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

  • The suffix lan

lan is a suffix that can be placed on a verb to derive the instrument that performs the action described by the verb. If the verb ends with a nasalized consonant or vowel, this suffix becomes nan.

e.g: sigi to seat/sit (down) sigilan a chair tigε to cut tigεlan cutter min to drink jiminnan water drinker

  • The suffix ntan (without the property of…) ≠ ma (having the property of…) NOTE: ntan is a suffix equivalent to –less or without in English. ma acts much like the suffix –y in English.

e.g: warintan moneyless kɔkɔma salty denntan childless sukaroma sugary kunntan headless nɔnɔma milky

  • The suffix ta NOTE: ta is a suffix added to verbs which is equivalent to –able in English; that is the thing in question is subject to or able to undergo the action of the verb.

e.g: san to buy santa buyable (to sale) dun to eat dunta edible min to drink minta drinkable

  • The suffix bali NOTE: bali is a suffix added to verbs which is equivalent to un…able in English; that is the thing in question is not subject to or able to undergo the action of the verb. e.g: jaabi to answer jaabibali unanswered malo to be ashmed malobali unashamed dun to eat dunbali inedible

    • The suffix ka NOTE: ka/kaw is a suffix which can be added to all nouns of place to express the meaning person of/from…, people of…. e.g: Bamakokaw people of Bamako yanka person from here

  • The suffix ya NOTE: The adjective plus ya is in most cases the same form that is used for the noun counterparts of the adjectival verb. This is the form that is used to characterize, for example, abstract qualities like: e.g: bilenya redness goniya heat nalomaya stupidity sumaya slowness

When functioning as active verbs, some adjectives do not require ya The following chart lits the adjectival verbs and the active verbal and niminal counterparts:

AdjectiveVerbNoun

ca

ka (__) caya

caya

di

ka (__) diya

diya

bon

ka (__) bonya

bonya

jan

ka (__) janya

janya

jugu

ka (__) juguya

juguya

ka (__) jεya/jε

jεya

fin

ka (__) finya/fin

finya

girin

ka (__) girinya

girinya

gεlεn

ka (__) gεlεya

gεlεya

kεnε

ka (__) kεnεya

kεnεya

kɔrɔ

ka (__) kɔrɔ

kɔrɔya

kumu

ka (__) kumu

kumuya

ɲi

ka (__) ɲε

ɲumanya

dɔgɔn

ka (__) dɔgɔya

dɔgɔya

misεn

ka (__) misεya

misεya

timi

ka (__) timiya

timiya

ya is a suffix which functions to create abstract nouns. It is equivalent to –ness or hood in English.

e.g:

cεya manliness denya childhood

  • ya can also be added to noun-adjective combinations: e.g:

tulogεlεnya stubbornness cεkolonya cowardice

Grammatical Notes: ƝƐBILAW

PREFIX

NSANA PROVERB

ɲininkalikεla tε fili! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

  • The prefix la

In Bambara any verb can take the prefix la, giving the verb a causative or indirect agency meaning:

e.g: A ye kalanden lataa He/she caused the student to go./He/she had the student go.

  • Many verbs, however, have developed specialized meanings in the causative which cannot be predicted as the sum of their parts.

e.g: ka _ mεn to hear ka _ lamεn to listen ka _ dege to teach ka _ ladege to imitate ka _ minε to take ka _ laminε to answer ka _ bεn to meet ka _ labεn to prepare

  • In these cases, the verb forms with la have to be learned as if they were not at all related to other verb forms.

FOLI - MƆGƆ ƝƐ JIRA MƆGƆ WƐRƐ LA – FOLI BILA

GREETING – INTRODUCING ONESELF – SAYING GOOBYE

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Dɔɔnin-dɔɔnin kɔnɔnin b’a ɲaga da! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Amadu

I ni sɔgɔma, n balimamuso! Good morning sister!

Sali

Nse, i ni sɔgɔma, n balimakε! Hεrε sira? Good morning, brother! Did you spend the night in peace?

Amadu

Hεrε dɔrɔn! I ka kεnε? Only in peace! How are you?

Sali

Tɔɔrɔ tε! I tɔgɔ? I’m fine! What’s your name?

Amadu

N tɔgɔ Amadu Jara. E dun? My name is Amadu Jara. And you?

Sali

N tɔgɔ Sali Tarawele. I Jara! My name is Sali Tarawele. Jara!

Amadu

Nba! Tarawele muso, i bε bɔ min? Nba! Tarawele. Where are you from?

Sali

N bε bɔ Segu. Jarakε, i fana bε bɔ Segu? I’m from Segou. Jara, are you from Segou too?

Amadu

Eh, ayi! N bε bɔ yan. Euh, No! I’m from here.

Sali

O ka ɲi! Ala ka tile hεrε caya! That’s good! May you have a peaceful day!

Amadu

Amiina! K’an b’u fo! Amen! Say hi to them!

Sali

U n’a mεn! They will hear it !

SANNI

SHOPPING

Communicative task:

NSANA PROVERB

Ni sugufiyε girinna, bεε bolo b’i kunna minan na! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Samba: Kiliyan! Kiliyan! Na yan! Bagi ɲumanw bε yan! Customer! Customer! Come here! There are good fabrics here!

Amadu: I ni sɔgɔma! N bε bagi ɲumanw fε, nka da duman! Good morning! I want good fabrics but cheap!

Samba: Ola, i sera a yɔrɔ la. Ne ka bagiw bεε da ka nɔgɔn. U lajε. Then, you are at the right place. All my fabrics are cheap. Look at them.

Amadu: Nin mεtiri joli ye? How much is the meter?

Samba: N b’o da diya i la! O mεtiri ye kεmε saba ni bi duuru ye. I give you a good price! The meter is one thousand and seven hundred and fifty. Kɔmi e don, barika b’a la I can reduce it for you.

Amadu: Ayiwa! A barika, caman bɔ a la. Ok! Reduce it, reduce a lot.

Samba: A ka ɲi forokiya la. I b’a san joli? It’s good for a bubu. How much do you buy it?

Amadu: A to kεmε fila la. N bε mεtiri wɔɔrɔ san. Give it at two thousand. I buy six meters.

Samba: A kari kari ye kεmε saba. Nka, i bε se ka kεmε fila ni bi duuru sara. The last price is one thousand and five hundred. But you can pay one thousand and two hundred and fifty.

Amadu: I ni ce! Mεtiri wɔɔrɔ ye wa fila ni dɔrɔmε kεmε ye. Hon! warimisεn segin. Thank you! The six meters are ten thousand and five hundred. Take it! Give back the change.

Samba: Fini ni warimisεn filε. I kεnε k’a kɔrɔ! Here are the fabrics and the change. May you feel good when it gets older.

Amadu: Amiina! Ka sugu diya! Amen! May you sell out!

YƆRƆW TAMASERECOGO

ASKING/GIVING DIRECTIONS

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Sen kelen tε sira bɔ! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Umaru: A’ ni sɔgɔma! Good morning!

Amadu: Nba, a’ ni sɔgɔma! Dɔ di! Good morning! Say something!

Umaru: Baasi tε! A’ bε hakε to! N bε dugutigi ka so de ɲinin. Nothing bad! Excuse me! I’m looking for the chief’s house.

Amadu: Dutigi ka so bε an kεrεfε, n bε se ka taa ɲɔgɔn fε. Chief’s house is next to us, we can go together.

Umaru: I ni ce! A sira ɲεfɔ n ye, n yεrε kelen bε se ka taa. Thanks! Tell me where the road is, I can go by my own.

Amadu: Ayiwa! I tilen nin sira kelen in fε. I bε kare saba tεmεn,o kɔ, fara i numan fε. Ok! Go straight on this same road. Pass three streets, then turn left. Da naaninan don i kini fε. Mangorosunba bε soda la. It is the fourth door on your right. There is a big mango tree at the door.

Umaru: I ni baraji! K’an bεn! Thank you! See you!

Amadu: K’an bε! Ka se ni i ɲuman ye! See you! May you get there in peace!

Umaru: Amiina! Amen!

MƆGƆ NI FƐNW TAMASERE COGO

DESCRIBING A PERSON, AN OBJECT AND A PLACE

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Don go don tulo bε taa kalanso! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Nin muso in man jan, a man surun. A ɲεkisεw ka kunba, a ɲinw jεlen don. A cεkaɲi. A nison ka di tuma bεε. Mɔgɔ sεbε don.

This woman is not tall, she is not short. Her eyes are big, her teeth are white. She is beautiful. She is always happy. She is a good person.

FARIKOLO LAHALAW

DESCRIBING ONE’S MENTAL AND PHYSICAL STATE

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Bana kunbεn ka fisa ni bana furakεli ye! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

1- Fanta: I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. I nisɔn man di, mun b’i la? Good morning, Bakari. You are not happy. What’s wrong?

Bakari: N fari man di n na. I am not feeling well.

Fanta: I yɔrɔ jumεn b’i dimi? Which part of your body hurts you?

Bakari: N ɲin de bε n dimi kojugu bi. My tooth hurts me so badly.

Fanta: I ye fura ta wa? Did you take medecine?

Bakari: Ayi, n bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la. No, I am going to the hospital.

Fanta: Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, k’a ban pewu! May you feel bether and you entirely recovered.

Bakari: Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε. Amen. May God accept the blessings.

Fanta: Amiina. Amen!

2- Fanta: I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. Munna an m’i ye surɔ? Good morning , bakari. Why didn’t we see you last night?

Bakari: N tun man kεnε. I was sick.

Fanta: Ee! Mun tun b’i la? He! What was wrong with you?

Bakari: N kungolo ye n dimi kojugu kunun wulada. I had a bad headach yesterday afternoon.

Sufε, n ma se ka sunɔgɔ, n fari bεε tun ka kalan.
At night, I couldn’t sleep, my body was hirting me.

Fanta: O bε sɔrɔ sumaya ye dε? That might be malaria.

Bakari: N hakili la, a bε sɔrɔ o ye. N bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la. I think that’s it. I shall go to the hospital.

Fanta: I ka kan k’i yεrε tanga susuw ma. You should prevent yourself against mousquitos.

Bakari: Tiɲε! N bεna sange sulen damadɔ ɲinin n ka denbaya ye. That’s true! I’ll look for some treated mosquito nets for my family.

Ola, sumaya ni bana misεnw tεna an tɔɔrɔ.
Then we won’t have any problem with sicknesses.

Fanta: Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, ka tɔɔrɔ dɔgɔya! May you feel better!

Bakari: Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε. Amen. May God accept the blessings.

Fanta: Amiina. Amen.

DELINAKOW

TALKING ABOUT DAILY ACTIVITIES

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Dugu bila ka fisa lada wuli ye! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Musow ka baara dugumisεnw kɔnɔ. Dugumisεnw kɔnɔ, musow ka baara ka ca. U bε wuli kabini fajiri. U bε fɔlɔ ka ji bɔ kɔlɔn na. U bε tasuma mεnε ka koliji kalaya. U bε yɔrɔw furan ka sɔro ka daraka tobi. Daraka mana dun, u bε minan nɔgɔw ko. U bε susulikε, u bε fini nɔgɔw ko, u bε denw ladon. Mali dugumisεn musow sεgεnnen! Women’s job/work in small villages.

In small villages, women have lot of work. They wake up (early) since dawn. First of all they take water from the well. They make fire to heat washing water. They sweep places and then cook the breakfast. After the breakfast, they wash dishes. They pound, wash laundries, they take care of kids. In small villages women are tired!

TAAMAW

TALKING ABOUT TRAVELING

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Cεkɔrɔba san tan bulon kɔnɔ, Denmisεnnin san tan jamana kɔnɔ, Olu de bε se ka barokε! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Taamaw

Mali mɔgɔw bε taama kɔsɔbε duniya kɔnɔ. U bε taa yɔrɔ caman na. I b’u sɔrɔ Farafinna jamanaw bεε la. Mali denmisεnw bε taama farajεla jamanaw fana kɔnɔ.

Mali kɔnɔ, mɔgɔw ka taama ka suma, barisa siraw man ɲin. Bolimafεnw man ca, ani u tε se ka taa yɔrɔ bεε. Togodamɔgɔw bε bɔ dugu ni dugu u sen na, nεgεsow la, wotorow la, wala bagaw kan i n’a fɔ: faliw, sow, misiw, ɲɔgɔmεw. Mɔgɔw bε bato ta Kulikoro ni Gao cε, sisikuru bε bɔ Bamako fo kayes.

Trips/travels

Malians travel a lot in the world. They go to many places. You find them in all the countries in Africa. The young Malian people also travel to European countries.

In Mali, people travel rarely, because roads are bad. There are not enough means of transportation, and they can’t go everywhere. Villagers go from village to village on foot, by bikes, by donkey cars, or by animals like: donkeys, horses, cows, and camels.

People take boat in between Koulikoro and Gao, train leaves Bamako for Kayes.

Sirakoro taama

Ne sera Sirakoro ntεnεn don, uti kalo tile mugan ni segin san ba fila ni wɔrɔ Mobili donna dugu kɔnɔ ka bεn ni fitiri ye, o y’a sɔrɔ san nana. An taara dugutigi ka so. A y’an bisimila koɲuman.

An sira, dugu jεlen an sɔrɔla ka taa dugu maabaw caman fo (Perefe dankan, Mεri, Dɔgɔtɔrɔ kuntigi, Muso kuntigi, Alimami, Pasitεri, cεmisεn kuntigi, ani n ka karamɔgɔ). Wula fε, dugutigi ni a ka kɔnseyew y’an bisimila a ka so. An y’an nali kun fɔ u ye. A diyara u ye kosεbε, u ko an k’an bisimila. O kɔfε ne ni n ka karamɔgɔ ye kalan daminε. Aa! Sisan kɔni, ne ye bamanankan caman faamu.

Alamisa don, uti kalo tile bisaba ni kelen, sɔgɔma dizεri waati, dugu musow bεε ni jenbe nana ka donkε n jatigiyala, ka ne fo. An ye donkε kosεbε.

Jɔn ko allah, Sirakoro ka di!!!

Fox Emily

The trip to Sirakoro

I got to Sirakoro on Monday, on august 28th 2006. When the car got into the village it was sun set, it rained. We went to the chiefs’ house. He welcomed us well.

We spent the night, and in the next morning we went to greet the village many important people (Sous- prefet, mayor, the health center leader, woman leader, the imam, the pastor, youth president, and our teacher.) In the afternoon, the village chief and his counselors welcomed us in his house. We told them the reason of our visit. They liked it and gave us sit. After that my tutor and I started learning. Ha! Now I understand lot of Bambara.

On Thursday, august 31st, all the women came in to my host family with drums and danced in the morning around 10 am just to greet me. We dance a lot. Truly, Sirakoro is good!!! Fox Emily

DIALOG

dɔgɔkun kelen taama A week trip

A: N nana n sara i la, n bεna taa dɔgɔkun kelen taama na sini. I inform you, I’m going to a week trip tomorrow.

B: Eh! Sini ? Ayiwa, ka taa ka segin nɔgɔya. He! Tomorrow? Ok! May you go and come back in peace.

A: A miina, ka ɲɔgɔn ye nɔgɔya, ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ. Amen, may we see each other, may you have peace after me.

B: k’an b’u fo! Ka segin n’i ɲuman ye. I k’an sama. I delila ka se yen wa? Say hi to them! May you come back in peace. Bring me something. Have you been there before?

A: Ayi, n ma se yen fɔlɔ. Ni alah sɔnna, n bεna aw sama. No, I haven’t yet. I’ll bring you something, god willing.

DUMUNIW

TALKING ABOUT MEALS

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Bɔrε lakolon tε jɔ! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Dumuniw ani dumunikεyɔrɔ ladaw.

Mali ka bon, a siyaw fana ka ca. O n’a ta o ta, siyaw ka dumuniw n’u ka dumuniyɔrɔ ladaw man jan ɲɔgɔn na kosεbε. Mali siyaw caman bε to, basi, dεgε, mɔni, seri, samε ani malokini dun. U bεε bε dumuni kε siɲε saba tile kɔnɔ: daraka, tilelafana ani surafana. Musow ni cεw tε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε yɔrɔ caman na Mali la. Cεw wali musow bε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε minεn kelen kɔnɔ. Danfara dɔw bε siyaw ni ɲɔgɔn cε. Bamananw bε seri sukarotan walima tosira kε daraka ye. Bamannanw fana ka surafana n’u ka tilelafana caman ye to ye. Malokini bε tobi nisɔndiya donw dɔrɔn. Kɔrɔbɔrɔw bε furufuru kε daraka ye. U caman ka tilelafana ni surafana ye malokini ye. Basi ka di marakaw ye kɔsɔbε. Siyaw dɔw bε barika da dumuni kɔfε nka dɔw t’a da. Dumuniyɔrɔ ye kalansoba ye Mali la.

Food and eating places customs

Mali is big; there are lot of ethnic groups. Despite that, ethnic groups eating places customs are not so different. Most of the ethnic groups eat tô, couscous, dègè, porridge (rice – millet), and rice. They all eat three times a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. In most of places in Mali, men and women don’t eat together. Men or women eat together in the same common bowl. There are some differences between the ethnic groups. Bambara have rice porridge or the last night left over for breakfast. They also have tô for lunch and dinner. Rice is cooked only during feasts. Sonrhaï people eat cakes for breakfast. Most of them have rice for lunch and dinner. Soninke people like couscous. Some ethnic groups thank after meals but some don’t. Eating-places are great schools in Mali.

Tamatina dilancogo How to make tomato sauce

                                    Dilannifεw/Ingredients
* tamati mɔnenba          * tigatulu        * jabakεnε         * kɔgɔ          * ji
  riped tomatoes            peanut oil        onion              salt               water
                                    Dilanniminεw/tools
* barama/fugantasa                  * furunε          * finfin           * kutu * muru
  cooking pot/bowl          stove             charcoal           spoon              knife
                                         Dilancogo/how to make
1- Finfin kε furunε kɔnɔ, tasuma kε finfin na. A fifa.
     Make fire with the charcoal in the stove.

2- Ni tasuma kamina, barama wala kasilɔri sigi tasuma kan. Ji dɔ k’a kɔnɔ. Put some water in the pot and put it on the fire.

3- I tεgε ko k’a jε. Tamati ni jaba ko k’u jε. Wash your hands, the tomatoes and the onions.

4- Tamati kε ji kalaman na. U kelen kelen ta, u fara b’u la. Put the tomatoes in the boiling water and shell them one by one.

5- U bila tasa jεlen dɔ kɔnɔ. U nɔɔni. Make paste with the tomatoes in a clean bowl.

6- Barama sigi tasuma kan tuguni. Tulu hakε min bε bεn i ka tamati ma, o kε barama kɔnɔ. Put your cooking pot on fire and put the quantity of oil you need according to the quantity of your tomato paste.

7- Tulu mana kalaya, tamati dɔɔni dɔɔni kε tulu la. To ka kutu kε k’a lamaga. When the oil in boiling add the tomato paste little by little and with a spoon stir it regularly.

8- Jaba tigε-tigε. A kε tamati na kan. Cut the onions in small pieces and add them to the tomato paste.

9- kɔgɔ kε tamati na la, dɔɔni dɔɔni. To k’a nεnε. Then add some salt and taste it.

Duncogo n’a lamaracogo How to eat and keep it

  • Nin tamatina in bε se ka kε sogo jeninen, jεgε jirannen, woso, wala kɔmitεri balabalalen kan, k’u dun. Waa, a ka di kɔsεbε. This tomato sauce can be eaten with fried meat and fish or with sweet potato and french fries.

  • A lamaracogo man gεlεn. I b’a kε buteli dɔ kɔnɔ ka tulu dɔɔni k’a kan k’a lasago yɔrɔ sumannen na. It is easy to keep. Put in a clean bottle, add some oil and leave it in a cool place.

DIALOG

Umaru: I ni sɔgɔma! Good morning!

Amadu: Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε! Nba! What happened? We haven’t seen you last night at the grin.

Umaru: Foyi ma kε! N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲεnajεba ye. Nothing happened. I was at a wedding party. It was such a big party.

Amadu: A diyara wa? Was it good?

Umaru: Kojugu! Dumuni ma kε foyi ye! An y’an kɔnɔ fa ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε. A lot! There was a much food! We ate and danced a lot till the next morning.

Amadu: Ala ka kε furu ye! May it be a successful marriage.

Umaru: Amiina! Amen!

ƝANAJƐW

TALKING ABOUT FEASTS AND LEISURE

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Dunun diya tuma y’a fara tuma ye! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

1. Umaru: An ni sɔgɔma! Good morning!

Amadu: Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε! Nba! What happened? We haven’t seen you last night at the grin.

Umaru: Tiɲε don. N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲanajεba ye. That’s true. I was at a wedding party. It was such a big party.

Amadu: A diyara wa? Was it good?

Umaru: Kojugu. Jamaba de tun bε yen. An ye dumunikε ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε. A lot! There were a lot of people. We ate and danced till the next morning.

Amadu: Fɔlifεn jumεn tun bε yen? Which instruments were there?

Umaru: An ye balani dɔn fo k’an sen kari. We danced xalophone till our legs got broken.

2. Jelikε: An ni su! Good afternoon (night)

Den-fa: Nba , aw ni su! Nba, good afternoon (night)

Jelikε: Hεrε tilenna wa? Did you spend a peaceful day?

Den-fa: Hεrε dɔrɔn. Only in peace.

Jelikε: Mɔgɔ nakun ka fisa i yεrε ye. The reason of once’s present is more important than yourself.

N’i ye n wulilen ye ka se yan, juguman tε.
If you sea me here, it’s nothing bad.
A kun ye furu sira ye.
It’s for a wedding process.
Keyitalakaw ye woro tan ni fura siri, k’u ɲε bɔra aw denmuso Fanta fε.
The Keïtas brought ten cola nuts to ask for our daughter Fanta hand.
U dun t’a ŋaniya ni foyi ye n’u denkε Bakari         furumuso tε.
They want her to be their son Bakari’s wife.
Woro tan filε n’a bε bεn aw ma, o bε diy’an ye kɔsεbε.
Here are the ten cola nuts, if you accept we would appreciate.

Den-fa: An bε woro minε fɔlɔ. Den bε yan, den baw bε yan. We first take the cola nuts. The daughter and the moms are here.

N’an y’olu ɲininka, olu mana jaabi min di,         an n’o fɔ aw ye.
We’ll ask them and let you know the answer.
Nin diyar’an ye, a bεnn’an ma. Hakεto b’o kan.
We do appreciat that, and it honour us.

Jelikε: Aw Keyita! Ala k’a ɲεn k’a d’an ma. N bε sira ɲinin. Keïta! May God help us. We ask the permission to leave.

Den-fa: Kuyate! Sira dir’i ma. K’an b’u fo! Kouyaté! You can go. Say hi to them!

Jelikε: U n’a mεn! Ka su hεrε d’an ma! They will hear it! May we have a peaceful night!

MƆGƆ WELELI

ACCEPT OR DECLINE AN INVITATION

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Denmisεnnin min bε yaalabakε, o t’a ba su ye! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

1. Mamu: Fanta! i ni fama sa! Fanta! It’s been a long time!

Fanta: An bεε ni fama. It’s been a long time for we all.

Mamu: I tununna dε! You got lost!

Fanta: O kεra! N tun taara dugu la. That’s true! I was in a trip.

Mamu: I nani diyara n ye. Tiɲε don, n dɔgɔmuso ka furusiri bε kε sibiri don. It’s a pleasure that you come back. It’s true, my little sister’s wedding is on Saturday.

N’i b’a masɔrɔ, n b’a fε i ka na o la. An bε ɲanajεba kε wula fε.
If you have time, I want you to come. We’ll have a big party in the afternoon.

Fanta: Basi tε, ni Ala sɔnna i bεna n ye. No problem, you’ll see me god willing.

2. Umaru: I ni wula, Susan! Good afternoon, Susan!

Susan: Nse! Umaru, hεrε tilenna? Nse! Umaru, did you have a peaceful day?

Umaru: N bε Ala tanu! A bε diy’an ye n’i bε se ka n’an ka furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la bi su in na. I thank God! I would appreciate if you can come to our wedding party to night.

Susan: Bi su in na! Haa! N tεn’a masɔrɔ. Tonight! Ha! I won’t hive time.

N bolo degunnen don barisa ɲɔgɔnye kεrεnkεrεnnen dɔ bε bolo.
I am busy because I have a special meeting.
A kεra baara ye. Kana jigin n na. Ala ka siɲε wεrε jir'an na.
That’s tricky. Don’t be mad at me. Next time.

Umaru: N tεna jigin i la. Ala ka dugawu minε! I won’t be mad at you. May God accept our blessings

Susan: Amiina! Amen!

DƐMƐ ƝININ

ASKING FOR HELP

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Funtinε bε yɔrɔ min, bεnkan tε yen! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Sarah: Ee! Mun kεra? N ka nεgεso bila! He! What’s going on? Leave my bike!

I bε taalen ni n ka nεgεso ye min? A ye son bεn! A' ye n dεmε!
Where are you taking my bike? Thief! Thief! Help me!

Musa: Jɔn kulekan bε yan? Mun y’i sɔrɔ? Jɔn donna i kan? Who is yelling here? What happens to you? Who got in your house?

Sarah: A’ ye na! A’ ye bɔ! Son taara ni n ka nεgεso ye. Come over! Come out! The thief took my bike away!

N b'aw deli. A’y’a kunbεn! A’ye ɲε n ma!
I beg you. Catch him! Help me!

Musa: I hakili sigi. A tε se ka taa yɔrɔ jan. Calm down. He cannot go far.

Passant: Kule dabila n balimamuso. U ye i ka son minε. Stop yelling my sister. They got your thief.

A ni nεgεso b’u bolo ka na.
They are come with him and your bike.

Sarah: O ye Ala tanu ye. Aw ni ce! Aw ni baraji! Thanks to God. Thank you! Thank you very much!

Hakεto! Musa, n hakili la, n ka kan ka sokɔlɔsila dɔ ɲinin
Please! Musa, I think, I should look for a guardian
min bεna n ka dukɔnɔna kɔlɔsi, k’a janto da la.
who will look after my house,, to take care of my door.

Musa: O ka nɔgɔn. An bεna mɔgɔ sεbε ɲinin i ye. That’s easy. We’ll look for a good person.

Hali ni mɔgɔ wεrε fɔra i kɔ, ale na sɔrɔ yan.
Even if someone else comes after you, he will be here.

WAATIW LAHALAW

TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

I ma min fɔ i siriyɔrɔ la, kan’o fɔ i foniyɔrɔ la! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

John: Amadu, i ni sɔgɔma. Good morning Amadu.

Amadu: Nba, hεrε sira John? Nba, did you spend a good night?

John: Hεrε dɔrɔn. N bε taa bɔ n terikε ka foro la ka na. Peace only. I’m visting my friend’s field.

Amadu: Ee! I t’i jɔ dɔɔni. E ɲε tε sanfinnenba la? He! Wait a little bit. It is going rain.

John: E ko nin san bε na sisan? Is it going rain?

Amadu: Funteni b’a kɔrɔ cogo min na, ne miiri la a bε na. It is hot, in my opinion it will rain.

John: Funteni ye sanji tamasere ye aw fε yan wa? Is the heat a sign of rain here?

Amadu: ɔwɔ, nka o dɔrɔn tε dε! San tamasere dɔwεrεw ye kabanɔgɔ, tile bɔ cogo ani fiɲε ci cogo ye. Hali kɔnɔ dɔw bε san kibaruya fɔ an sεnεkεlaw ye. Yeah! But that’s not all! Another sign is the cloud, the way the sun appears and the way the wind blows. We farmers are even told by some birds.

John: Kabako! Ni n bε taa, n bεna n ka sanji minεfini ta. I ni ce. Amadu, n mana segin, an bε se ka barokε Mali waatiw ni Ameriki taw kan wa? Amazing! When going, I’ll take my umbrella with me. Thank you. Amadu, if I come, could we talk about the seasons in Mali and the ones in America?

Amadu: O bε diya n ye kosɔbε. Ola n yεrε bεna faamuya dɔ sɔrɔ Ameriki kan. K’an bεn sɔɔni. I’ll like it a lot. I’ll know more about America. See you soon.

John: K’an bεn! Ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ. See you! May you have peace after me.

Amadu: Amina! K’i ɲuman segin! Amen! May you come back safely!

SEKO NI DɔNKOW

TALKING ABOUT ONE’S SKILLS

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Jirikuru mεn o mεn ji la, a tε kε bama ye! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Sekow ni bololabaaraw

Bololabaarakεlaw jɔyɔrɔ ka bon kɔsɔbε jamana in kɔnɔ. Kabini lawale la, an ka minεnw fanba bεε bε dilan bololabaarakεlaw de fε. Dugu si tε taa u kɔ. Ulu de b’an mago caman ɲε. I bε garankεw, gesedalaw, numuw, sanu ni warijε fagalaw, dagadilannaw, kɔlɔnsennaw, sojɔlaw, jiridεsεlaw, kundigilaw, mekanisiɲεw, menizenw sɔrɔ an ka dugu caman kɔnɔ. Nin seko ni dɔnko mɔgɔw fana tε taa sεnεkεlaw, nakɔbaaralaw, bagangεnnaw, mɔnikεlaw, dosow ni jeliw ko.

Aptitudes and crafts

Artisans play an important role in the country. Since the past, craftsmen make lot of our tools. No village can work without them. They meet most of our needs Shoe makers, blacksmiths, jewelers, potters, well diggers, masons, Sculptors, hairdressers, mechanics, carpenters are in most of our villages. Farmers, gardeners, animal risers, fishermen, hunters and griots are important.

DIALOG

Amadu

N terikε John, e yεrε bε mun baarakε an ka dugu in kɔnɔ? John my friend, what do you do as job in our village?

John

ɲinikali ɲuman! Ne ye yiriforow ni kungoyiri nafamaw lakanabaa wɔlɔntεri ye. N bε baarakε sεnεkεlaw ni nakɔtigiw fε. N bε ladilikan di mɔgɔw ma yirituru ni yiriw ladoncogo ɲuman kan. N bε dugu mɔgɔw dεmε yirishεnw sɔrɔ cogo n’u turu cogo la ani nɔgɔ ni nɔgɔdingεw dilanni fana la. N bε taa nakɔw ni forow kɔnɔ tuma ni tuma ka kuma nin fεnw kan.

Good question! I am a natural resource management volunteer. I work with farmers and gardeners. I advice people on good ways of planting and taking care of the trees. I help people in finding tree seeds, planting seeds and compost and making compost piles. I go to the fields and gardens from time to time to talk on these.

Amadu

Ayiwa! Ne hakili la, n y’i ka baara faamu sisan. Ala k’i dεmε. Okay! I think, I understand your job now. May god help you.

Te wulicogo How to make tea

                                    Wulifεnw/Ingredients
* te             * sukaro                   * nanaye                         * ji
  tea leaves       sugar                         mint                          water
                                    Teminεnw/Tools
* barada                   * furunε         * finfin        * wεriw          * pilato
  tea pot                   stove                charcoal     glasses          plate
                                     Wulicogo/The processes
                     N'i bε te wuli, i bε fɔlɔ ka: To make tea, first:
1- Tasuma ɲaga, o kɔ i bε te kε barada kɔnɔ.
   Light the fire, then put tea in the tea pot.

2- I bε ji wεri ɲε naani ni tila k’a la. Put four glass of water and half in it.

3- O kɔ i bε barada sigi tasuma kan. I b’a wuli miniti bisaba kɔnɔ. Then put the tea pot on the fire and boil it for half an hour.

4- Tuma kelen kelen, i b’a jigin ka teji kε barada wεrε kɔnɔ. From time to time pour it in the other tea pot.

5- O kɔ, i bε sukaro k’a la. I bε sɔrɔ k’a suuru wεriw kɔnɔ walasa ka sukaro yelen teji la. After that put sugar in it in the second tea pot and pour it in the glasses to it mixt up.

6- O kɔ, i b’a nεnε ni sukaro y’a bɔ. I bε teji yεlεma barada kɔnɔ tuguni. Then you taste it if there is enough sugar.

7- I b’a kalaya dɔɔni. Heat the mixture a little bit.

8- Mɔgɔ caman bε teji dɔ to wεri kelen kɔnɔ walasa ka musi dila n’o ye wεri tɔw kɔnɔ. Lot of people make foams with the glasses

9- I bε tila ka wεriw kɔ sananko. Clean the external side of the glasses.

10- Te mana kalaya dɔɔni, i b’a tila wεriw ni ɲɔgɔn cε k’a di mɔgɔw ma. When it gets warm then serve it.

11- Segin bε kε ni kan fo siɲε saba. We do the same processes for all the three rounds.

12- Siɲε fila tɔw la i bε se ka nanaye k’a la. You can also add mint in it.

13- Temugu ni ji hakε bε yεlεma mɔgɔw hakε kɔsɔn. The quantity of water an tea leaves depends on the number of peple drinking tea.

SIGIYƆRƆ KUNNAFONNIW

GETTING INFORMED ABOUT ONE’S AREA

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Dugu bila ka fisa lada wuli ye! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Musa: Eh! John, i ni faama! Hey! John, It’s been a long time!

John: Musa, i ni waati. I bε di? Musa, it’s while. How are you?

Musa: Alhamudulilayi! I bε dugu jumεn na sisan? Thanks to God! In which village are you now?

John: N sigilen don Jitumu mara la, Keleya kεrεfε. I am in Jitumu area, next to Keleya.

Musa: Keleya lamini duguw ye dugu kɔrɔw ye. The villages around Keleya are old villages.

John: Tiɲε don! Dugutigi ko: ale ka dugu in tutigε tuma mεnna kɔsεbε. That’s true! The chief said: It’s been a very long time they settled here.

Dugu in sigira ka kɔn Tubabu fanga ɲε.
The village was settled before the white men’s arrival.

Musa: Ha! O ye dugu kɔrɔ ye. Siya jumεnw bε yen? Ha! That’s an old village. What are the ethnic groups there?

John: Siya caman. Bamananw ka ca ni siya tɔw ye Jitumu mara kɔnɔ. Lot of ethnic groups. Bambaras are more than the others in jitumu.

Fulaw ni Maninkaw fana sigilen bε yen. Siginfεw bε sɔrɔ yen, i n’a fɔ Korokow,
Fulfuldes and malinkes are there too. Some immigrated like Korokos,
Marakaw, Kɔrɔbɔrɔw, Dongɔnɔw              ani siya wεrεw.
Sarakoles, Sonraïs, Dogons and others.

Musa: O ye siya caman ye. I ye yen mɔgɔya kεcogo bεε faamu ka ban? That’s a lot of ethnic groups. Did you understand all the ways people behave?

John: Dɔɔni dɔɔni. Nka yirikurun mεn o mεn ji la, a tε kε bama ye. Little by little. But as long as a piece of wood stays in water, it will never become a crocodile.

N bε ka ladaw ni korɔw ɲεɲinin. I am still learning some customs.

Musa: Ayiwa! O de ka ɲi. Ala k’i dεmε. Okay! That’s good. May God help you. John: Amiina! K’an bεn! Amen! See you!

JAMA HAKILI JAKABƆ

LEADING A COMMUNITY MEETING

Communicative Task:

NSANA PROVERB

Jεkafɔ ye damu ye! Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

John: A’ ni wula yankaw, an tilenna hεrε la, Ala k’an si hεrε la. Good afternoon people from here, we spend the day in peace, may we spend the night in peace.

Jeliba: Nba! A ni wula, aw bisimila! A ye dɔ di. Nba! Good afternoon, welcome! Say something.

John: Saha! An ma na baasi la, an ye Saniya baarakεlaw ye. Thanks! We aren’t here for wors, we are sanitation workers.

  An nana walasa an bε se ka hakilina falen falen dugu saniya cogo kan.
We are here to exchange ideas about the village sanitation.

Jeliba: Dugutigi, ayiwa kuma tε! U ko, k’u nana k’an dεmε ka dugu saniya. Dugutigi, so here is the topic! They said, they’re here to help us with the village sanitation.

Dugutigi: Jeliba, a fɔ dunanw ye: k’u nali diyar’an ye. K’u bisimila! Jeliba (Griotman), tell them we appreciate them being here. Welcome!

John: Gεlεya jumεn bε yan saniyako la? What are the sanitation problems here?

Amadu: Ne bε kuma ɲinin. I ask to talk.

Jeliba: Kuma b’i bolo, Amadu. You have the floor (the speech) Amadou.

Amadu: Ne hakili la, ɲaman ani jinɔgɔko gεlεya de b’an kan bi. I think we have problems with dirty water and trash here.

John: Kuma ɲεna! Aw hakili la fεrε jumεnw bε se ka sɔrɔ olu la? Good! According to you what are the solutions for those? (makan caman….) (noise)

Jeliba: A ye hakεto, an ka ɲɔgɔn lamεn! Please, let’s listen one each other!

Bakari: Baasi tε, ne hakili la, ni bεε bε se ka taa ɲaman bɔn dugu kɔfε yɔrɔ kelen na, Ok, for me, if every one can go put the trash behind the village in the same place

  o bε fisaya. Ani fana, an k’an hakili to ji saniyali la.
That would be better. And also let’s keep in mind water sanitation.

John: Yankaw, anw hakili la, bεε ye famuya sɔrɔ tɔnsigi in kɔnɔ. We think, everyone has understood something about the meeting.

Aw ni ce, aw ni baraji! Ala k’an bεn a ɲɔgɔn wεrε ma. Sisan an b’a fε ka sira ɲinin.
   Thank you! May we meet again. Now we want to leave.

NSIIRIN: SUNGURUNNIN YE JɔN TA YE?

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!! N y’a da kamalennin saba la!

Sungurunnin ye jɔn ta ye? Kamalennin saba tun bε to ka kε ɲɔgɔn fε. U nana sungurunnin kelen sɔrɔ. Dɔ ko, “An bε taa yaala. N’an ye wari sɔrɔ, an bεna fini san k’a don sungurunnin kan na.” U taara yaalayaala. Dugalen tun bε dɔ fε. Sabara tun bε dɔ fε. Fura tun bε dɔ fε. Tile dama tεmεnnen kɔ, dugalentigi y’a fɔ ko: “Ne bε filεlikε n ka dugalen na.” A ye filεlikε k’a ye ko sugurunnin sara. A ko: “Sugurunnin sara!” Sabaratigi ko:”A ye na sisan. An bε jε k’an senw don sabara la. An bεna se yen sisan, janko an bεna sungurunnin su sɔrɔ k’a don.” Furatigi ko: ”N’an sera yen sisan, a bεna kunu.” U jεra k’u senw don sabara la. U sera sungurunnin ka dugu la. Furatigi taara sungurunnin lakunu. A ɲεnamayara kokura ka kε mɔgɔ ye. Dugalentigi ko k’ale ta don. Sabaratigi ko k’ale ta don. Furatigi ko k’ale ta don. O kamalennin saba la, sungurunnin ye jɔn ta ye?

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen! Mamadou Kanté

NSIIRIN: DOSOKɔRɔ, BAKɔRɔNIN NI SAGAJIGIBA KA DUGUTAA.

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!!

N y’a da dosokɔrɔ, bakɔrɔnin ni sagajigiba la!

Fɔlɔ-fɔlɔ, dosokɔrɔ, bakɔrɔnin ni sagajigiba tun ka di kɔsεbε. Su t’u fara, tlen t’u fara. Don dɔ, barosen fε, bakɔrɔnin y’a fɔ tɔ fila ye n’u bε se ka taa dunuya yaala walasa ka nafolo sɔrɔ. O yɔrɔnin kelen na, u ye taamadon da. O don selen, u jεra ka dugu taamobili kelen ta. U selen dugu fɔlɔ min na, dosokɔrɔ ko k’ale bε jigin ye. A jiginna, ka wari di mobili bolila ma. Mobilitigi kɔrɔtɔ kojugu wulila ni mobili ye ka sɔrɔ a ma warimisεn segin dosokɔrɔ ma. Dosokɔrɔ bolila mobili kɔ, ka kule ka dεsε. Mobilitigi ma jɔ. A tɔɲɔgɔn fila dimina fo k’a dama tεmεn. Dugu filanan na, bakɔrɔnin ko k’ale bε jigin yen. Mobili jɔ, bakɔrɔnin ye fiɲε minεn. A taara, a ma wari sara. Sagajigiba kelen tora mobili kɔnɔ ŋunuŋunu na. A y’i miiri bakɔrɔnin ka kεwale la. A ko k’ale bε fεrε ɲinin waasa a kana kε somɔgɔ sama ye n’u sera dugu sabanan kɔnɔ. Sow ni kungo cε, sagajigiba ko k’ale sera. A jiginna, k’a ka wari sara. A k’ale na don dugu kɔnɔ hɔrɔnya la barisa mɔgɔ ka juru t’ale la. Kabini o don fo bi: E dosokɔrɔ tε mobilitigi tεmεn tɔ ye n’a ma kule o la! Bakɔrɔnin kegunya kojugu tε jɔ bolimafεn ɲε! Faɲa ye sagajigiba bila siraba kan taama na, a tε sira bolifεn ɲε, barisa maa ka juru t’a la!

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen! Mamadou Doudou NDOYE

NSIIRIN: KUNGOSOGOW KA DENKUNDI.

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!! N y’a da suruguba ni sonsannin la!

Waraba muso jiginna. A ye kungosogow bεε fara ɲɔgɔn kan denkundi la. U ko sogo bεε ka dɔnsen kelen kelen kε. Ni min ta ɲεna, misi bε di o tigi ma. Misi kofɔlen, surukuba fora ka wuli k’ale fɔlɔ bε dɔnkε. Suruku y’i dɔn k’i dɔn fo k’a wɔɔsi. Waraba den ma yεlε, a ba ma yεlε. Suruku ka dɔn ma diya mɔgɔ si ye. Kɔnɔsogonin fana wulila. O fana y’i dɔn. O ka dɔn diyara bεε ye. Waraba muso yεlεla ka yεlε. U bεε nison diyara. U ye misi di kɔnɔsogonin ma. Misi dilen kɔnɔsogonin ma tuma min na, surukuba girinna ka wuli, ko ale denkε fɔlɔ ye kɔnɔsogonin ye. Bεε ko: “Ee! Suruku den bε se dɔn na! A bε se dɔn na! ” O kεlen tuma min na, kɔnɔsogonin y’i sigi. Waraba den kasira ko kɔnɔsogonin ka wuli ka dɔnkε tuguni. Kɔnɔsogonin wulila, nka a dɔnkεtɔ sen cunna waraba den kan kan, k’a faga. Waraba muso kulela ko ka kɔnɔsogonin minε. O fɔlen, kɔnɔsogonin ye kεnε minε. U m’a sɔrɔ. Sonsannin ko: “A ma tiɲε! Ni kɔnɔsogonin ma sɔrɔ, a y’a fa minε. O fɔlen, suruku k’ale den tε! Barisa kɔnɔ ni wara tε kelen ye. Kama b’a la, kama t’ale la. Kɔnɔsogonin sen ye fila, sen naani b’ale suruku fε. Mun y’ale ni kɔnɔsogonin kε kelen? N’u ka misi kama don, u bε se k’o minε. ” Surukuba y’a dɔn k’a tε ɲε cogo si la n’ale ma minε. Suruku y’u to mankan na ka fiɲε minε. A ye gɔngɔn wuli, ka bobilen kalanman seri waraba muso ɲεda la. U ye surukuba fana ɲinin ka dεsε. Sonsannin tεmεtɔ ye kɔrɔ suruku ɲε bilen ye tu la. Sonsannin ko: “Ee, n kɔrɔ, e ni kɔnɔsogonin tε siya kelen, munna e bolila?” Surukuba y’a jaabi k’ale taalen, jɔn minεna ale kɔ.

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen!

NSIIRIN: BAMA NI FALI.

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!! N y’a da bama ni fali la!

Don dɔ bama bɔra ji la k’a bε taa i senna yaala. A taara fo yɔrɔ jan. A segin tuma, a filila sira ma, a munumununa ka munumunu. A sεgεnnen taara i da jalasunba dɔ kɔrɔ. Fali nana se bama ma jalasunba kɔrɔ. Fali kabakoyara, a ko bama ma: “εε! N dɔgɔ mun y’i se yan bi? Yan ni baji ka jan dε!” Bama ko fali ma: “N kɔrɔ ne yεrε tε se ka foyi fɔ nin ko in na bilen. N taara n senna yaala, n tununna, n t’a dɔn n bε segin so cogo o cogo.” Fali ko a bε taa so tuma min, bama y’a fɔ a ye “n kɔrɔ, kana nin kε ne na, i bε taa cogodi ka ne to yan? I b’a lajε ka n lase bada la.” Fali k’o tε baasi ye; a gεrεla bama la, bama yεlεnna fali kɔ la. U selen dankan na fali ko bama ka jigin nga bama y’a fɔ fali ye k’a k’i jija ka se n’a ye ji cεmancε la. U selen ji cεmancε la bama jiginna, a y’i da fa fali kɔsen na o yɔrɔ bεε. Fali ko a ma: “Aah e jo don, ne de jalaki don.” Bama y’a jaabi: “I kεra jalakitigi ye o, i kεra jotigi ye o, nin si tε ne ka sira ye, ne bε e dun bi.” K’u to kuma na nsonzanin nana; a ko: “n kɔrɔ fali! Fo ji cεmancε la tan! Mun kεra? ” Fali y’a jaabi ko: “Ne ɲuman kεtɔ de kεlen bε kara ye ne da la. Bama tununna, ne y’a dεmε ka na ji la. A selen ji la, a ye ne minε k’a bε ne dun.” Nsonzanin y’i min k’i kanto fali ma yɔrɔ jan fε: “N kɔrɔ fali, i tε se k’i puruti wa?” Fali ko: “N bε se kε!” Fali y’i pan ka bama tan a da la fo ka bama yεlεma a kɔ kan. Fali bolila ka taa so.

N’i ye maa min ka sumun furakε, o b’i ka tigasi ɲimi.

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen!